Essay: Charlemagne – Charles the Great

Charlemagne ‘ was known as Charles the Great and was a very powerful man. He was in charge of the people in the Carolingian Dynasty.

Kievan Rus ‘ Christianity flourished

Bantu migrations ‘ In the 15th century, the Ottoman’s drive for power pushed them to move all over the ancient world to create a massive empire.

Sunni ‘ They believed that the first four caliphs were ‘rightly guided’. They believed that Muslim rulers should shadow the Sunna, Muhammad’s Illustration.

Shi’a ‘ They believed that Ali, the Prophet’s son-in-law, must have prospered Muhammad. They assumed that all Muslim rulers should be descended from Muhammad; did not recognize the authority of the Sunna.

Part II.

Charlemagne was the power behind the Carolingian Dynasty during 814 BCE. He was very good in stimulating the European economic and political life. He alone found the Holy Roman Empire. When he was in charge he was able to halt the political and cultural disintegration of the early middle Ages. He helped lay the foundation of the Alps. It was all because of hard work that he managed to help northern Europe to advance. Northern Europe was one of the leading financial, radical, and nation force in the West. When Charlemagne father died he immediately stepped in to lead the people in his Empire. Both Byzantine and Carolingian came about around the same time. The arts and cultures during this time with both empires flourished. During this time both of the empires were destroyed by invading Mongol/Turkish people. The empires were led by great leaders. Charlemagne was in charge of the Carolingian and Justinian was in charge of the Byzantine. Charlemagne showed to be a strong leader after his demise. When he passes the Merovingian kings took over and they were not as strong and could not keep the Empire a float. The Carolingian Renaissance had better schools and libraries in several of the cloisters of Western Europe. Many of these institutions were destroyed during the ninth century anarchy. Because of the movement with religious reform of the eleventh century, the cloisters paid very little attention to education, and the schools that did survive were taken over by the cathedral schools. In both of these Empires there were similarities between the churches. In the Roman Catholic Church you had the service being held in Latin. The pope was in charge of the bishops. The pope during this time had power over the kings and emperors. There were choices made indicating that priest could not marry. If you were married you could not terminate your marriage no matter what the circumstances. The Eastern Orthodox services were conducted in Greek or any linguistic. The headman and leaders were the ones in charge. The emperor had power over the bishops and patriarch. Both of these groups the bishops and patriarchs are allowed to get married. In this group you were allowed to get a divorce if the circumstances warrant it. The similarities between the two were that they both based their faith on their religious principle. They believed profoundly in Jesus and the Bible. Both groups used sacraments such as baptism. Both of their leaders were very religious. They were either priests or bishops. The Carolingian and Byzantine were trying to convert people to their belief. The two Empires would fight about who would convert more people to their way of Christianity faith. The missionaries from the Orthodox Church took their way of thinking about Christianity to the Slavs. There were two Eastern evangelists, Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril. Both of these groups worked among the Slavs in the ninth century. Cyril and Methodius had invented an alphabet system for the Slavic language. In inventing the alphabet system the Slavs were able to read the Bible in their own tongue. A lot of Slavic languages, including Russian, were written in Cyrillic alphabet. The missionaries were the ones who carried out the work, the Slavs themselves were creating culture that would form one of history’s most influential countries call Russia.

Part III.

The Muslims supported the expansion of science. The rulers were worried about having skilled people to take care of their sick. The loyal people relied on mathematics and astronomers to assist with prayer and the control of Mecca. Muhammad trusted in the power of learning. The Muslims understood that the ability of knowledge helped them to distinguish the difference between factual and wrong. It was their credence that it smooth’s a way to heaven. The Muslims strongly believed that knowledge was their friend and their protector against enemies. Extensive knowledge of the astronomy helped guide the Muslim traders to many trading cities of the ancient world. The Prophets emphasis on study and scholarship was a strong support of learning by Muslim leaders. During this time the Umayyad’s and Abbasids had encouraged scholars to collect and translate scientific and philosophical texts. In the early 800s, Caliph al Ma ‘mum opened in Bagdad and merger library, school, and translation center called the House of Wisdom. The introduction of Astronomy assisted the Muslims explore the world. They used the stars to compute time and position which helped with the trading by opening up a new way to travel. In using the stars to travel the merchants could do more trading. They made advances in arithmetic. In the 800s they united the Indian number system, including the use of zero. They used the information to create a math book in which was called ‘algebra’. Pupils around the biosphere today have come to learn algebra. The Muslims completed may advances throughout this time. During 800s, Muslim doctors were creating ways to improve medicine. The modern technology would not exist without the Muslim mathematics contribution. In the 13th century the Muslims world, they industrialized culture of philosophy, science, mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry and medicine, led the world. Islamic world paved the way for modern civilization. If not for the things that took place in modern Western civilization the technology industry would not exist today. With the existence of lighting and the new way of counting inventory it helped with the advancement of trade. The people were able to keep up with what was coming in and what was money-making. In keeping good records it enable them to take more orders and have a better look on trade. The Muslims perfected the astrolabe, an instrument that made considerable advances in calendar making, astronomy and cartography. The astrolabe was used to calculate time, celestial events, and relative position. The Muslims were also responsible for the invention of the cartography which was the art of beautiful handwriting. Muslims contributions were a very helpful source to all. Religion plays an important part in the world. Religion affects everything that we do in life. Both empires as stated before are strong believers of religion. Religion has made a significant impact on world history. Both empires have religion in common. It is believed that religion has brought people together and also tore them apart.

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