Essay: The Cold War

Cold war and international relations are two subjects that couldn’t be divided. Nowadays by the political development of international relations, there are few questions asked that ‘ does cold war continues till today? On the face of it, aforesaid question is too easy but society is devided in two parts by their opinion. By the commonly held view, cold war is part of twentieth century and it doesn’t have any relation with present; in spite of today’s global political pressure, minority considers that deterioration of international relations, division of world on west and east spheres, proves that cronological borders of cold war requires serious changes. According to sort of range theories widely spread in society, cold war subject needs deep and analitical analyse.
Before the discussion of cold war bases, I wanted to take up few sentences about chronological borders of cold war from scientific-research literature. On the whole the Cold War was designated by continuous rivalry which existed in the second half of twentieth century between west and east block countries. If we give a glance in history manuals, it’s possible to find few dates which is recognised as a cold war starting point, for example one of the earliest events in the origin of the Cold War arose from the anti-Communism remarks of British leader Winstonn Churchill. In 1946, March 5, in a famous policy speech characterised of the political situation of the time, he said: ‘From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an ‘Iron Curtain’ has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow’. Soviet respond to western block is recognised ‘ 14th Marchs’ interview of Stalin to newspaper ‘Pravda’ but as we know Cold war has been started much earlier than Churchill speech in Fulltone.
As I have mentioned, Cold war can be apprehended as contest between western and eastern block countries, west side leaded by USA and east by USSR. Actually, this effort was ideological battle between Communism and Capitalism, Autocratic and democratic systems. Traditional geopolitical struggle , which was developed by idea of dominace among developing world and desire to controll world military industry.
What some historians call anti-communism, others analyze as fear, because Stalin, shortly after invading Berlin, had gone on to conquer all of Eastern Europe. The Americans responded to Stalin’s maneuvers in Eastern Europe with the Marshall Plan, a generous provision of free financial aid for the reconstruction of war-torn Western Europe.
The Soviets responded to the Marshall Plan with the Zhdanov Doctrine, unveiled in October of 1947. The Zhdanov Doctrine claimed that the United States was seeking global domination through American imperialism, as well as the collapse of democracy. On the other hand, according to this Doctrine, the Soviet Union was intent on eliminating imperialism and the remaining traces of fascism, while strengthening democracy.
The Americans reacted to the Zhdanov Doctrine with the so-called ‘Long Telegram,’ written by George Kennan, Deputy Chief of Mission in Moscow, saying in part:
Soviet power, unlike that of Hitlerite Germany, is neither schematic nor adventuristic. It does not work by fixed plans. It does not take unnecessary risks. It is Impervious to logic of reason, and it is highly sensitive to the logic of force. For this reason it can easily withdraw and usually does when strong resistance is encountered at any point. Because of George Kennan and his Long Telegram, official US policy became the ‘containment’ of Communism.
The Soviet Union and the United States, two nations that had never been enemies on any field, and which had fought side by side during WWII, were now undeclared enemies in a war that would never break out in the open, but which would last for more than fifty years.

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