1. Indian Cub Continent. Sub-Continent is a term used to represent southern region of the Asian continent. The terms “Indian subcontinent” and “South Asia” are used interchangeably. The current territories of Afghanistan, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka form the countries of Sub continent. It is home to well over one fifth of the world’s population, making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Definitions of the extent of the Indian subcontinent differ but it usually includes the core lands of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh; Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives are often included as well. The region is also called by a number of other names including South Asia, a name that is increasingly popular.

Fig 1.1 – Indian Sub-Continent

2. For the ease of academic research muslim era in sub-continent can be subdivided into six eras as given in Table 1.1

Ser Era-Dynasty Time Prominent Rulers

1. Era-I Ummay’ds 650-750 AD Muhammad bin Qasim

2. Era II- Abassids Post 750- End of 9 th Century AD Al-Mansur Caliph

3. Era III- Ghanavids 997-1030 AD Mahmud of Ghanza

4. Era IV- Ghauris 1185-1206 AD Shahab-ud-din Muhammad

5. Era V- Sultanate of Delhi 1206-1526 Qutub ud Din Aibak

6. Era V- Mugual’s 1526-1857 Babar, Aurangzeb

Table 1.1 Muslim Era’s in Sub Continent

Spread of Islam in Indian Sub Continent

3. Islam spread rapidly in the world as soon as it surfaced in the world, but it established its foothold in the Indo-Pak Sub-continent in the beginning of 8th Century A.D. It was during the rule of sixth Umayyad caliph, Walid bin Abdul Malak (705-715 A.D), when an overarching incidence of ship looting occurred near Debal, a sea port. The ships, carrying widows and children of deceased Arab soldiers, sent by the king of Ceylon (present day Sri-Lanka) to the Umayyad Governor, Hajjaj bin Yousef, of Baghdad were ransacked by a contingent of ferocious Hindu pirates. Hajjaj sent his emissary to the Rajput king, Raja Dahir under whose jurisdiction the pirates carried out the loot. The raja bluntly turned down the Governor’s claim said the pirates were not under his sway. Hajjaj decided to send the young Imaduddin Muhammad bin Qasim to teach the raja a lesson and release the prisoners.

4. Muhammad bin Qasim. Muhammad bin Qasim then led a glorious Muslim army and invaded Sindh in 712 A.D. During his short stay in Niran he was reinforced by four thousands Jats who were long subdued by the self-righteous king. Raja Dahir came with his 40,000 soldiers along with contingents of elephants. However, the Raja killed in the battle field and his demoralized army retreated. Muhammad bin Qasim not only released the prisoners along with the looted ships but also established Islamic society/rule in Sindh. Qasim continued to expand the Muslim society beyond Sindh. He marched up to Multan where he defeated Raja Gor Singh. During this time several changes occurred that made his expeditions slow down and finally put a halt. Hajjaj bin Yousef had been died in 714 A.D and, within months administrative changes wrought in Damascus.

5. Abbasiid’s Rule With the passage of time rule of Umayyads finally evaporated in 750 A.D. They were succeeded by the Abbasids. The Abbasid rulers time after time sent their governors in the Sub-continent. According to Ibn Haukal, who traveled extensively through the Arab domains around the middle of the 8th Century, particularly mentioned the affluence of the people of Sindh.

Fig 1.2 – Abbasid Caliphate

6. Era of Ghanzavi. In the 10th Century Turks invaded the Sub-continent through renowned Khyber Pass. The most important of them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of Sabuktagin the great General. Mahmud ruled the sub-continent from 997 A.D. He wanted to expand his rule across India and attacked seventeen times in this regard. He was a great warrior. He reduced the influence Hindushahi Kingdom being prevalent in India. He became known as an Idol Breaker after the destruction of Somnath temple. However, he died in 1030.

7. Era of Ghori . Mahmud appointed Khusru Malik as the governor of Lahore. However, Khusru Malik was killed by the Ghoris headed by Muhammad Ghori and paced their empire around 1185. Muizz-ud-din Muhammad bin Sam, known as Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghuri is among the one who played a paramount role in the establishment of Muslim rule, especially in North India. He defeated the fearsome army of Prithvi Raj Chauhan in 1192 in the second battle of Tarain. He had has the credit to establish the first Muslim in Delhi. In 1206, Ghori had to travel to Lahore to crush a revolt. On his way back to Ghazni, his caravan halted at Damik near Jehlum. He was killed while offering his evening prayers.

8. Delhi Sultanate. From 1206 to 1526 A.D Delhi Sultanate rose to power. It is believed, however, that the period of Delhi Sultanate was politically turbulent but the Muslim society under the Sultanate period flourished at a great length. Sufism also made it way during this era.

9. Mugual Empire Mughals, led by Zaheer-ud-Din Babar entered India in 1526 A.D and remained in power, though nominally, till 1857. The Mughal epoch is particularly known as the period of Muslim architecture, literature and gave a boost to religious reformists and saints such as Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Shah Walliullah, Sheikh Farid-ud-Din Ganj Shakar, Nizam-ud-Din Chishty, etc.

Fig 1.3 – Mughal Empire

10. Islam left profound effects on minds of people of the Sub-continent. Islam completely changed the living standard and style of thinking of the people of the Sub-continent. The Muslim society gave a welcome fillip to the cultural, economic and, social development in the Sub-continent and boosted inter-religious harmony as well. Turks introduced Persian language which intermingled with Arabic and other local languages gave birth to several new languages including Urdu. Though the Muslim society experienced ups and downs throughout the history, yet it yielded positive effects on the minds of people at large in Indo-Pak Sub-continent.



Era of Ummayd’s and Abbasids

(650- Post 750- End of 9 th Century AD 750 AD)

Fig 2.1 – Extent of Ummyad Caliphate

11. In 715 Ummayd Ruler , Walid bin Abdul Malak was replaced by his brother Suleman bin Abdul Malak (715-717 A.D). The new ruler was extravagantly luxury loving and quite incompetent for the accession to the throne. Suleman called off the best Generals from around their respective destinations and through intrigues executed them one by one. These Generals brought laudable victories to Walid. They included Qutaiba bin Muslim, the conqueror of Turkistan; Tariq bin Ziad, the conqueror of Andalus; Musa bin Nasir, the conqueror of North Africa; and Muhammad bin Qasim, the conqueror of Sindh. Muhammad bin Qasim was died languishing in the prison at the age of just 22. He was replaced by Yazid bin Kabashi.

12. Qasim’s rule, though short, is marked by the historians as marvelous and magnificent. He gave relieved the local population scourged by the extra judicious rule of the erstwhile rajas in general and Raja Dahir in particular. Furthermore, he espoused inter-religious harmony and brought prosperity and good governance in the areas under his domain. Italian scholar F. Gabrieli said: “Present day Pakistan, holding the values of Islam in such a high esteem, should look upon the young Arab conqueror, Muhammad bin Qasim, almost as a distant Kistes (founding father), a hero of South Asian Islam”.

13. Islam left profound effects on minds of people of the Sub-continent. Islam completely changed the living standard and style of thinking of the people of the Sub-continent. The Muslim society gave a welcome fillip to the cultural, economic and, social development in the Sub-continent and boosted inter-religious harmony as well. Turks introduced Persian language which intermingled with Arabic and other local languages gave birth to several new languages including Urdu. Though the Muslim society experienced ups and downs throughout the history, yet it yielded positive effects on the minds of people at large in Indo-Pak Sub-continent.

14. Abbassid’s Rule. During the rule of Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur (754-775 A.D), scholars from the Sindh were welcomed at the court of Baghdad. In the north Islam was making inroads from Afghanistan into the north-western region of Pakistan. Islamic missionaries were actively spreading their faith among the tribes. Due to weak Abbasid ruler, who acceded to the throne later on, lost sway over the territories of the Sub-continent at the end of 9th Century.



Era of Ghaznavi and Ghouri

Ghaznavids (997-1030 AD)

15. The Ghaznavid dynasty was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin.At their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, much of Transoxiana, and North India from 977–1186. The dynasty was founded by Sabuktigin, upon his succession to rule of Ghazna after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin.

16. Sabuktigin He was son-in-law of Alp Tigin and founder of the Ghaznavid Empire, began expanding it by capturing Samanid and Kabul Shahi territories, including most of what is now Afghanistan and part of Pakistan. The 16th century Persian historian, Firishta, records Sabuktigin’s genealogy as descended from the Sasanian emperors.However, modern historians believe this was an attempt to connect himself with the history of old Persia.

Fig 3.1 – Sultan Sabuktigin

17. After the death of Sabuktigin, his son Ismail claimed the throne for a temporary period, but he was defeated and captured by Mahmud in 998 at the Battle of Ghazni.

18. Mahmud of Ghazni, In 997, Mahmud, another son of Sebuktigin, succeeded the throne, and Ghazni and the Ghaznavid dynasty have become perpetually associated with him. He completed the conquest of the Samanid and Shahi territories, including the Ismaili Kingdom of Multan, Sindh, as well as some Buwayhid territory. By all accounts, the rule of Mahmud was the golden age and height of the Ghaznavid Empire. Mahmud carried out seventeen expeditions through northern India to establish his control and set up tributary states, and his raids also resulted in the looting of a great deal of plunder. He established his authority from the borders of Ray to Samarkand, from the Caspian Sea to the Yamuna.

Fig 3.2 – Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi

19. The wealth brought back from the Mahmud’s Indian expeditions to Ghazni was enormous, and contemporary historians (e.g. Abolfazl Beyhaghi, Ferdowsi) give glowing descriptions of the magnificence of the capital and of the conqueror’s munificent support of literature. Mahmud died in 1030.

20. Decline The Ghaznavid sultans were ethnically Turkish, but the sources, all in Arabic or Persian, do not allow us to estimate the persistence of Turkish practices and ways of thought amongst them. Yet given the fact that the essential basis of the Ghaznavids’ military support always remained their Turkish soldiery, there must always have been a need to stay attuned to their troops’ needs and aspirations; also, there are indications of the persistence of some Turkish literary culture under the early .At its height, the Ghaznavid empire grew to cover large parts of present-day Iran, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, all of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and large parts of northwest India.

21. The Ghaznavid rulers are generally credited with spreading Islam into the Indian subcontinent. In addition to the wealth accumulated through raiding Indian cities, and exacting tribute from Indian rajas, the Ghaznavids also benefited from their position as an intermediary along the trade routes between China and the Mediterranean. They were, however, unable to hold power for long and by 1040 the Seljuks had taken over their Persian domains and a century later the Ghurids took over their remaining sub-continental lands. The Nasher Khans, are said to be the descendants of the Ghaznavid dynasty. The rulers include:-

a. Sabuktigin (977–997 AD)

b. Ismail (997–998)

c. Mahmud (998–1030 AD)

Ghurid Dynasty (1185-1206 AD)

22. The Ghurids or Ghorids were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent the exact ethnic origin from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan. The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam from Buddhism, after the conquest of Ghor by the Ghaznavid emperor Mahmud of Ghazni in 1011. Abu Ali ibn Muhammad (reigned 1011–1035) was the first Muslim king of the Ghurid dynasty to construct mosques and Islamic schools in Ghor.

Muhammad of Ghor

23. Muhammad born Shihab ad-Din(1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammadfrom 1173 to 1202, and as the supreme ruler of the Ghurid Empire from 1202 to 1206.Mu’izz ad-Din was one of the greatest rulers of the Ghurid dynasty, and is credited with laying the foundation of Muslim rule in South Asia, that lasted for several centuries. He reigned over a territory spanning over parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, India, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

Fig 3.3 – Sultan Mamhood Ghouri

24. The Ghurids were great patrons of Persian culture and literature and lay the basis for a Persianized state in India. They also transferred Iranian architecture of their native lands to India, of which several great examples have been preserved to this date . However, most of the literature produced during the Ghurid era has been lost.





25. The Delhi Sultanate was based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially as fol:-

a. The Mamluk dynasty (1206–90)

b. The Khilji dynasty (1290–1320)

c. The Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414)

d. The Sayyid dynasty (1414–51)

e. The Lodi dynasty (1451–1526)

26. The Mamluk dynasty (1206–90). Qutb-ud-din Aibak was a slave of Mu’izz al-Din, whose reign began the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin, and due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk (slave) Dynasty. Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years. Qutb-ud-din Aibak initiated the construction of Qutub Minar and the Quwwat-ul-Islam (literally, Might of Islam) Mosque, now a UNESCO world heritage site.

27. List of Rulers include fol :-

a. Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206–1210)

b. Aram Shah (1210–1211)

c. Shams ud din Iltutmish (1211–1236), son-in-law of Qut-bud-din Aibak

d. Rukn ud din Firuz (1236), son of Iltutmish

e. Raziyyat-ud-din Sultana (1236–1240), daughter of Iltutmish

f. Muiz ud din Bahram (1240–1242), son of Iltutmish

g. Ala ud din Masud (1242–1246), son of Ruk-nud-din

h. Nasir ud din Mahmud (1246–1266), grandson of Iltutmish

i. Ghiyas ud din Balban (1266–1286),

j. Muiz ud din Qaiqabad (1286–1290)

Fig 4.1 – Qutub Minar in New Delhi

28. The Khilji Dynasty (1290–1320 AD). The first ruler of Khilji dynasty was Jalal-ud-din Khilji. He came to power in 1290 after killing the last ruler of the Mamluk dynasty, Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, at the behest of Turkic, Afghan, and Persian amirs. Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji was of Turko-Afghan origin, and ruled for 6 years before he was murdered in 1296 by his nephew Juna Khan, who was also his son-in-law. Juna Khan later came to be known as Ala al-din Khilji. Ala al-din is also known for his cruelty against attacked kingdoms after wars. Historians note him as a tyrant and that anyone Ala al-din Khilji suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1298, between 15,000 and 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising. The last Khilji ruler was Ala-ud-din’s 18-year-old son Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah Khilji, who ruled for four years before he was killed by Khusro Khan. Khusro Khan’s reign lasted only a few months, when Ghazi Malik, later to be called Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, killed him and assumed power, in 1320, thus beginning the Tughluq dynasty of Delhi Sultanate. The rulkers of this dynastuy include:-

a. Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji (1290–1296)

b. Alauddin Khilji (1296–1316)

c. Umar Khan Khilji (1316)

d. Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah (1316–1320)

e. Khusro Khan (1320)

27. The Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414 AD). This dynasty lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik rechristened himself as Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq and is also referred to in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah. He was of Turko-Indian origins, with a Turkic father and a Hindu mother. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ruled for five years and launched a town near Delhi named Tughlaqabad.According to some historians such as Vincent Smith,] he was killed by his son Juna Khan, who then assumed power in 1325. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq and ruled for 26 years. During his rule, Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, covering most of the Indian subcontinent. The rulers incl:-

a. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (1320–1325)

b. Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351)

c. Mahmud Ibn Muhammad (March 1351)

d. Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351–1388)

e. Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughlaq II (1388–1389)

f. Abu Bakr Shah (1389–1390)

g. Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III (1390–1393)

h. Sikander Shah I (March–April 1393)

i. Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (Sultan Mahmud II) at Delhi (1393–1413

j. Nasir-ud-din Nusrat Shah Tughluq (1394–1414), grandson of Firuz Shah Tughluq

Fig 4.2 – Tomb of Ghias ud din Tuglaq in Delhi

28. The Sayyid dynasty (1414–51). The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty thatt ruled Delhi Sultanate from 1415 to 1451 The Timur invasion and plunder had left Delhi Sultanate in shambles, and little is known about the rule by Sayyid dynasty. The Sayyid dynasty was displaced by the Lodi dynasty in 1451.It rulers are as fol:-

a. Khizr Khan (1414–1421)

b. Mubarak Shah (1421–1434)

c. Muhammad Shah (1434–1445)

d. Alam Shah (1445–1451)

29. The Lodi dynasty (1451–1526) The Lodi dynasty had its origins in the Afghan Lodi tribe. Bahlol Lodi was the first Afghan, Pathan, to rule Delhi Sultanate and the one who started the dynasty. He began his reign by attacking the Muslim controlled Kingdom of Jaunpur to expand the influence of Delhi Sultanate, and was partially successful through a treaty. Thereafter, the region from Delhi to Benares was back under influence of Delhi Sultanate. After Jalal Khan’s death, the governor of Punjab – Dawlat Khan Lodī – reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate.Babur came, defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi, during Battle of Panipat in 1526. Ibrahim Lodi’s death ended the Delhi Sultanate, and Mughal Empire replaced it. Its rulers included:-

a. Bahlul Lodi (1451–1489)

b. Sikandar Lodi (1489–1517)

c. Ibrahim Lodi (1517–1526), defeated by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat on April 21, 1526




30. Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur founded the Mughal Empire in India after defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526.At the age of 14, Babur ascended the throne of the Central Asian kingdom of Farghana. His greatest ambition was to rule Samarkand. He fought many battles in the pursuit of this goal, winning and losing his kingdom many times in the process. In 1504, he ventured into what is now Afghanistan and conquered Kabul.

31. Babur – First Mughal Emperor [1526-30]. Babnur’s position in Central Asia was precarious at best. In order to consolidate his rule, he invaded India five times, crossing the River Indus each time. The fifth expedition resulted in his encounter with Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat in April 1526. Babur’s army was better equipped than Lodhi’s; he had guns while the sultan relied on elephants. The most successful of Babur’s innovations was the introduction of gunpowder, which had never been used before in the Sub-continent. This combined with Babur’s newer tactics.1528, he captured Chanderi from the Rajput chief Medini Rao, and a year later he defeated the Afghan chiefs under Mahmud Lodhi in the battle of Ghagra at Bihar. These conquests made Babur the “Master of Hindustan”. He was not destined to enjoy the fruits of his conquests as he died shortly afterwards in Agra on December 26, 1530 . He was buried at Kabul in accordance with his wish.

32. Humayun’s Rule [1530-40, 1555-6]. Babur was succeeded by his eldest son Humayun. Humayun failed in asserting a strong monarchical authority. He inherited a freshly won empire with a host of troubles; the Afghan nobles, the Rajputs and worst of all, his three treacherous brothers. They caused numerous problems for him. Following his father’s advice, Humayun treated his brothers kindly and appointed them to high positions. In the first ten years of his rule, he faced so many challenges not only from his younger brothers but also from the Afghan General Sher Shah Suri who had served under Babur. Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun in the battles of Chausa and Kanauj in 1540. After recovering his throne, Humayun devoted himself to the affairs of the kingdom and towards improving the system of government. Unfortunately, after recovering his empire, Humayun was not destined to rule for long. In January 1556, he met his tragic end by slipping from the famous building known as Din Panah. After him his eldest son Akbar took over the rule of the empire.

33. Suri Dynasty (1540-55 AD). Sher Shah Suri, was an Afghan leader who took over the Mughal Empire after defeating Humayun in 1540. Sher Shah occupied the throne of Delhi for not more than five years, but his reign proved to be a landmark in the Sub-continent. He formulated a sound imperial administration that was inspired by the Safavid regime in Iran. Sher Shah employed a powerful army. He personally inspected, appointed and paid the soldiers, thus making him the focus of loyalty and subduing the jealousies between clans and tribes.

Fig 5.1 – Rohtas Fort built by Sher Shah Suri near Jhelum

34. Akbar’s Reign (1556-1605 AD ). Humayun’s heir, Akbar, was born in exile and was only 13 years old when his father died. Thanks to his exceptionally capable guardian, Bahram Khan, he survived to demonstrate his worth. Akbar’s reign holds a certain prominence in history; he was the ruler who actually fortified the foundations of the Mughal Empire. After a series of conquests he managed to subdue most of India. Areas not under the empire were designated as tributaries. He also adopted a conciliatory policy towards the Rajputs, hence reducing any threat from them. Akbar was not only a great conqueror, but a capable organizer and a great administrator as well. He set up a host of institutions that proved to be the foundation of an administrative system that operated even in British India. Akbar’s rule also stands out due to his liberal policies towards the non-Muslims, his religious innovations, the land revenue system and his famous Mansabdari system. Akbar’s Mansabdari system became the basis of Mughal military organization and civil administration.

35. Jehangir’s Reign (1605-1628 AD). Akbar was succeeded by his son, Salim, who took the title of Jehangir, meaning “Conqueror of the World”. He expanded the empire through the addition of Kangra and Kistwar and consolidated the Mughal rule in Bengal. Jehangir was renowned for administering impartial justice to his people, irrespective of their religious faith. Around this time, European traders had started coming to India.The first ambassador to the Mughal court was Sir Thomas Roe. He was able to secure many trading facilities for his countrymen.

36. Shah Jehan’s Rule (1628-58) AD. Jehangir was succeeded by his second son Khurram in 1628. He took the name of Shah Jehan, i.e. the Emperor of the World. He further expanded his Empire to Kandhar in the north and conquered most of Southern India. The Mughal Empire was at its zenith during Shah Jehan’s rule. As a result, during this reign, the world witnessed the unique development of arts and culture of the Mughal Empire.

Fig 5.2 – Taj Mahal built by Shah Jahan in Agra

37. Alamgir’s Reign (1658-1707 AD). Aurangzeb ascended the throne on July 21, 1658 and ruled supreme till 1707. Thus Aurangzeb ruled for 50 years, matching Akbar’s reign in longevity. But unfortunately he kept his five sons away from the royal court with the result that none of them was trained in the art of government. This proved to be very damaging for the Mughals later on. Aurangzeb had three brothers.Aurangzeb challenged his father’s rule. Shah Jahan fell seriously ill and all his sons proclaimed succession. Contrary to everyone’s expectations, Shah Jehan recovered. On his recovery, he again backed Dara as his successor. A war of succession broke out among all the brothers. In the long run Aurangzeb was victorious. But as Shah Jehan was in absolute favor of Dara, Aurangzeb no longer trusted him, and had Shah Jehan placed under polite restraint in his own palace.

38. Decline of Mughal Rule and the Battle of Plassey. The death of Alamgir in 1707 is generally regarded as the beginning of the gradual decline of the once extensive, prosperous and powerful Mughal Empire. Although it took nearly 150 years before the House of Babur finally disappeared from the scene, the cracks that had appeared at Alamgir’s death widened. His son Muazzam, who ruled from 1707 to 1712, succeeded Aurangzeb Alamgir. He took for himself the title of Bahadur Shah. He ruled for five years and momentarily revived the Mughal Empire. But the Marhatta’s power increased and they became the unchallenged rulers of Deccan. In the province of Punjab, the Sikhs under Guru Govind Singh became a force to reckon with. One of the reasons that power centers kept springing up outside Delhi was the frequent change in the succession of Empires. Nearly 17 kings were crowned during the period spanning from 1707 to 1857.




39. Trade. Islamic influence first came to be felt in the Indian sub-continent during the early 7th century with the advent of Arab traders. Arab traders used to visit the Malabar region , which was a link between them and the ports of South-East Asia to trade even before Islam had been established in Arabia. The Arab merchants and traders became the carriers of the new religion and they propagated it wherever they went.

40. Cultural Influences. The Mughal age is famous for its many-faceted cultural developments. The Timurids had a great cultural tradition behind them. Their ancestral kingdom at Samarkand was the meeting ground of the cultural traditions of Central and West Asia. The Mughals brought with them Muslim cultural traditions from Turko-Iranian areas, which inspired the growth of the Indo-Muslim culture.

41. Administrative Reforms. Sher shah suri was inspired from inspired by the Safavid regime in Iran The principal reforms for which Sher Shah is remembered are those connected with revenue administration. He set up a revenue collection system based on the measurement of land.. Numerous civil works were carried out during his short reign; planting of trees, wells and building of Sarai (inns) for travelers was done. Roads were laid; it was under his rule that the Grand Trunk road from Delhi to Kabul was built. The currency was also changed to finely minted silver coins called Dam.

42. Literary Influences. The reign of Akbar was a period of renaissance of Persian literature. The Ain-i-Akbari gives the names of 59 great Persian poets of Akbar’s court. History was the most important branch of Persian prose literature. Abul Fazl’s Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari were complementary works. Akbar and his successors, Jehangir and Shah Jehan greatly contributed to the development of Indian music. Tansen was the most accomplished musician of the age.

43. Painting. Humayun laid the foundation of the Mughal style of painting. Later on, during the reign of Akbar, a fusion of Persian and Indian style of painting took place.

44. Architecture. The Mughal architectural style began as a definite movement under his rule. Akbar’s most ambitious and magnificent architectural undertaking was the new capital city that he built on the ridge at Sikri near Agra. The city was named as Fatehpur to commemorate Akbar’s conquest of Gujrat in 1572. The most impressive creation of this new capital is the grand Jamia Masjid.During the reign of Shah Jehan, Mughal architecture reached its supreme exuberance. He chose marble as the chief medium for all his architectural undertakings. Elaborate ornamentation, pietra dura, and creation of exclusive landscape settings, are some important features of the buildings of this period. He Shah Jehan built marble edifices at Agra such as the Diwan-i-Aam, the Diwan-i-Khas, the Shish Mahal and the Moti Masjid, which have been described as the most elegant buildings of their class to be found anywhere. But all other architectural creations of Shah Jehan are nothing when compared to the exquisite conception of the mausoleum of his wife, Arjumand Bano Begum (Mumtaz Mehal) at Agra. The Taj Mehal is the crowning glory and culmination of Mughal architecture.


45. The the thousand year rule of muslim can be truly called as the golden era of sub continent’s history.During this millennium des ite of ferocious wars and ongoing struggle lasting impressions were left by the rulers on its people.In modern day the influences of this golden muslim era are evident in various forms from Bangladesh to Pakistan and beyond. It’s a legacy every indl of sub-continent can be proud of and forms the basis of ‘common“ heritage of the subcontinent far above from their religious , ethnic , cultural and linguistic divide.

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