The reformation of industries along with the development and increase of factories and large scale manufacturing made effective management procedures a necessity. These procedures were necessary for maximized productivity in an organization. As a result, a wide range of theories were developed to enhance managerial practices (Katia Caldari, 2007). These include:
126.96.36.199 Scientific Management Theory
Propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor, this theory states that by structuring the job properly, the worker is propelled to be more active and productive. This theory focused on the effectiveness of movement and the work in progress; it also re-oriented the objective and capacity of employees (Saylor Foundation, 2015). His work changed the function of managers from that of coercing workers to execute their tasks to that of dexterous employees who are able to control a field of production with the aim of effectively raising the level of production (Manie Bosman, 2009).
Critics argued that in using this approach, workers were not permitted to show their originality in their work. They also claimed that this concept gave more preference to management and decreased employees to mere mechanizations with no say (Mind Tools, 2015).
Taylor’s theories were good in that they showed the relationship of productivity and yield with profit in order that the more efficient workers would earn more money. The theories were also intended to create safer working conditions so workers would have less risk of injuries while carrying out their tasks (SkyMark, 2015).
Though developed many years ago, Taylor’s approaches are still seen in modern management methods such as; pay-oriented achievements, monetary incentives, benefits and all-round effective management processes (Muhacit Celik et al, 2011).
In this approach, the jobs were standardized, employees were awarded or disciplined. This method was effective for organization with properly organized routine activities. It showed the careful weighing and specializations of all tasks in an organization.
Strengths of Scientific Management Theory
1. It enables jobs and methods to be weighed with a commensurate degree of accuracy by its analytical approach to work in an organization.
2. Evaluation of procedures and processes give valid information on what to base increments in working methods on.
3. It provided the structure for recent work studies.
4. It aided major developments in the work place for employees.
5. Developing the task procedures brought great increment in efficiency.
6. It enabled the workers to be compensated by output and to maximize incentive payments.
7. It focused on the framework of the organization (Carter McNamara, 2008)
Drawbacks of the Scientific Management Theory
1. It brought about increased discontinuity on tasks due to division of labor.
2. It brought about economically based procedures in motivation of workers by relating salary to output.
3. The planning and supervision of working activities are put totally in the case of the managers.
4. It totally cancelled any realistic agreements concerning pay rates as every task was weighed and rated scientifically (Health Knowledge, 2011).
This method broke down the make-up of manual jobs in producing conditions, evaluating each movement in order that there would be a better way of carrying out tasks. Hence, workers can be trained to be the best in their tasks. It is specifically related to performance incentives. It was a strict system where every job became distinct and specific.
188.8.131.52 The Administrative Management Theory
It was developed by Henri Fayol in 1916. He propounded that management is involved in every area of our society and lives. He also believed that all activities necessary to carry out our life’s activities can be grouped into either of the following functions which are; planning, coordinating, staffing, organizing, commanding and controlling (Gaurav Akrani, 2011).
In his theory, he defined management based on six functions listed above; he also gave 14 principles of management. In his definition of management, he proposed that it takes place within a definite organizational make-up with specific duties and it is directed towards the attainment of goals by influencing the effects of others (Rhyszard Barnat, 2014).
Strengths of Administrative Management Theory
1. Fayol gave a definition of management based on its six functions.
2. He gave basic items and concepts which would be used for future research outlined in his 14 principles (Mahmood and Basharat, 2012).
Criticisms of Administrative Management Theory
1. He elaborated on only the framework of formal settings.
2. Attention was not paid to issues such as personal versus group interests, as suggested by compensation and fairness, Fayol thought that in functioning in the employee’s interest the employers were condescending (Tompkins, 2010).
3. Fayol outlined matters pertaining to the sensitivity of a customer’s needs such as initiative, though he saw them as issues pertaining to the logical organizational performance framework and not as issues pertaining to revised structures and re-orienting the attitude of people to attain better relationship between an organization and its customers.
4. Many of Fayol’s principles have been incorporated into present day organizations but they were not oriented to function in conditions of spontaneous change and matters of worker’s participation in the making of decisions in organizations (Islam Sarker, et al, 2013)
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