1 Chapter One: Introduction
Leadership invariably occurs within the context of a group (Thomas et., al, 2013). They also noted, leadership is a relational property of groups; leaders can’t exist without a group of followers and followers can’t exist without leaders (Thomas et., al, 2013). Furthermore, raison d’être of leadership is the management and accomplishment of group goals (Thomas et., al, 2013).
Given that groups go into extinction, with undervalued influence or disregarded (Benford, R. D., & Hunt, S. A. (1992). Fresh advances in typical social psychology, on the other hand, have created the theory of the group to the front of the literature that discuss leadership. As a group process, the utmost projecting method on leadership is provided by the social uniqueness examination of leadership (Thomas et., al, 2013).
1.1 Subject of the Study (or Problem Statement)
Communication is the most complex way of getting along in a group. The standard textbook accounts of language say that it consists of three components: a phonological component that determines how words and sentences are pronounced, a syntactical component that determines the arrangement of words and morphemes in sentences, and a semantic component that assigns a meaning or interpretation to words and sentences (Kecskes & Horn, 2007).
The components of language of communication include speech sounds, written symbols, words and syntax. All these permit language to be productive. As written by Haastrup, T. (2009), communication can be described as a chain of events whereby a message links up the source or originator with the expected destination which interprets it.
However, leadership communication is highly required in an intergroup relation. Yet communication relies upon a shared language, a pre-requisite that does not exist in many intergroup situations. Language barrier is one of the numerous barriers to communication; it is a blockage in the communication system constituting one of the most serious problems of feedback mechanisms. It can occur in any one of the three steps in the communication process; initiation, transmission or reception. The problem of communication is the use of language and or sign and symbol that is not comprehensible by the recipient. This has been presented by the use of registered words by various professions (Coupland et., al, 1991).
Group process is one of the many varieties of systems, institution, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby members engage one another. On the scale of communication, group process ranges from interpersonal to international with respect to various goals and standards. More than a decade ago, communication problem are the most significant operational problems identified in intergroup relation.
Flaws in leadership communication in an intergroup relation problem are a source of frustration, dissatisfaction and friction between it (Atwater, L. E., & Waldman, D. A. (2008) and the group process. Also, there is an existence of leadership communication problem in an intergroup relation; the members either old or new are compounded with their sense of being “outcast” if they do not get along.
The most obvious display, in every place of work, of the communication is seen in the relationship between a multinational parent company group and its network of international sub group, a relationship regarded as by a number of unique features (Smidst et., al 2001)
1.2 Purpose of Study (Objectives)
i. to know the number of stages of group development starting from formation to maturity and identify leadership skill;
ii. to find ways that leadership communication could enhance group process to work in close proximity;
iii. to analyze the level group cohesion in under the pilot of vibrant leader using clarified communication.
1.3 Significance of the Study
It might appear to be impossible to see a planning body as a group, yet, certain committees or task forces should work as a group to finish such tasks as requirements evaluation, building up the extensive plan, advancement of a continuum of consideration, or setting up quality change strategies in a group.
This study makes inquiry into the effects of leadership communication on intergroup relation. Since communication is like a pearl inside a shell; the shell is like the people that carry the
Communication (aph.gov.au). If language and communication is eliminated, it implies a vanished pearl meaning like an empty oyster shell (aph.gov.au). The ability to communicate clearly is a key function for all people. Being able to communicate effectively in an individual’s first or home language connects a person to their ethnic group and helps to shape a persons’ identity in group (aph.gov.au).
This study is of great importance to a number of people within the society who seek fortune in intergroup relation, interpersonal trade and the scholars who may wish to research in the similar field of study in future. The interrelation groups are expected to benefit immensely from the findings of this study as it contributes to communication and group process and also widen the scope of leadership communication made use of in achieving success in a group process.
This study will add to the available literature on communication and group process in interpersonal scale, which has brought to the notice of group relations by providing members with growing appetite for engaging content, successful process and create barrier free for people who want to be member.
However, it is believed that many articles have done a lot providing practical solution to reducing the problems of leadership communication in a group process but on a little clarification as regard indigenous culture and in close proximity. However, this work will attempt further discussion on communication and group process.
2 Chapter Two: Theoretical Framework
2.1 Models of Group Development:
The aim of most study on group development has to do with the understanding of why and how small groups transform in a space of time. To learn this, experts observe the forms of change and steadiness in groups in a period of time.
Many theoretical models have been developed to explain how certain groups change over time; in some cases, the type of group being considered influenced the model of group development proposed as in the case of therapy groups (myfloridalicense.com). Attention to group development over time has been one of the differentiating factors between the study of groups and the study of teams such as those commonly used in the workplace, the military, sports and many other contexts (medbib.com).
One of the approaches of accepting group process is by observing models of group development.
i. A four-stage model of group development that can lead to “high-performance teams”: Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing;
ii. Cog’s Ladder Model: this model recognizes additional stages of group development (hab.hrsa.gov).
2.1.1 The politeness stage
Members of group trying to got familiar with one another, allocation of some mission and also cautious while exhibiting communications (hab.hrsa.gov).
2.1.2 The “why are we here” stage
The group starts to explain tenacity, stake values, and form factions or subcategories (hab.hrsa.gov).
2.1.3 The bid for power stage
There is struggle among some members for control of the group (hab.hrsa.gov).
2.1.4 The constructive stage
Alliance and agreement structure arises amongst members, coupled with joint leadership, and a group uniqueness develops (hab.hrsa.gov).
2.1.5 The “esprit” stage
Group collaboration mirrors inspiration, trust, caring, directness, respect, and reception (hab.hrsa.gov).
2.2 The Psychology View of Communication and Intergroup Relation:
According to the Palo Alto study of communication and focusing primarily on relationships, not on individuals (Visser, 2007). In regards to this, they vary from conventional social and cognitive psychology (Visser, 2007), to which they attribute a “conventionally durable drift towards a nomadic view of political animal and, therefore, resilient drift towards a reconsolidation of is now expose themselves more as multipart designs of associations and communication” (Moran, 1981).
The Palo Alto researchers (scientists) had five communication theoretical points:
1. It is unbearable not to communicate;
2. The Palo Alto researchers prompt to determining the role of communication in the maxim of the unfeasibility of not communicating; (Visser, 2007).
3. Relations are governed by rules; (Visser, 2007).
4. Communication embraces relationship its correlated verbal and nonverbal means (Steiner, 1974);
5. Interpretation of communication occurs through punctuation;
2.3 Communication and Decision-Making in Groups
Communication is an important as it brings together groups in a two-way sharing of information among communication equals—in short, participatory communication (Servaes, 2008). The type of communication structure defines leadership, roles and the rank pyramid within the group; group morale and cohesiveness; and it limits or improves productivity (www.earthsummit2002.org).
As recommended by Enayati, J. (2002), the choice of a communication might be more effective if strategies of decision-making were drawn in advance and if urges to soothe the structure too early were resisted, as there is considerable resistance to change once these structures are established (www.earthsummit2002.org). Communication measures, and consequently presentation, are brought up if the group has clear, performance oriented leadership; an appropriate task procedure; and reasonable rules; genuinely high resilience for interrelation clashes and obvious communication response to guarantee that information is communicated (Caughlin, 2003).
2.4 Leadership and Communication Skill
Information is needed by an effective leader to plan a progression for a group. Various disappointments in leadership are traced to a leader’s inadequacies to use the best possible information, or the mistake of a group to acknowledge information that might be problematic. (Hackman & Johnson, 2013)
A good leader will give listening ears to information that is dangerous to pay attention to and will be open to new possibilities. This makes situations mature for development. Improvement aptitudes additionally empower a good leader to show medium that permit groups to avoid drawbacks of group think, generally by permitting commitments to be made without stigmatization. Additionally, leaders who are consented to development will by and large affirm and even praise minor failures caused in making a course for advancement. (Dewan, & Myatt, 2008).
2.5 Attributes of groups
ii. Participation Patterns;
iv. Cohesion (Lau & Murnighan, 1998); Campion et., 1993)
2.5.1 The group and facilitation
A facilitator have to aware of his own conduct when there is a desired to encourage the growth of a group. He has to analyze correctly the forms of conduct taking place in the group. He must recognize the occupied by group members and be conscious of the way he relates with the group most especially the members.
According to Adair (1986) and Sinclair (1992), people in groups have, three interrelated aspect of need and they are:
1. Achieve the task;
2. Develop and be supported as an individual (www.cpa.ie);
3. Develop and ‘maintain’ the group (Anson et al., 1995).
2.5.2 Understanding the group
All groups have an overwhelming path that the individuals in the group associate and create an example of cooperation. The understanding of these outlines is called group dynamics. A organizer’s work in a group can be investigated through an analysis of both content and procedure, i.e via an examination of what he is really going after, for example, choosing financing or concurring a system for a women’s programmes (www.cpa.ie).
The facilitator’s effort is more successful when he perceives the necessities, parts and resistance of members of group. It additionally permits the facilitator to recognize what is going on and what is occurring on account of the setup of the group (www.cpa.ie).
Projection is an assurance instrument which individuals make use of every now and then in their relations with one anothers. Projection depicts the circumstance where a someone perceives a characteristic in another person which they do not accept to having them. Normally these characteristic are thought to be bad or undesirable considerations, emotions or reactions (www.cpa.ie).
2.5.3 Group Division
By the time a major part of the group inclines towards one position, their accord ends up to impact others in the group that holds a more direct position (www.earthsummit2002.org). Both their circumstances and contentions make a division of group positions more probable, prompting an all the more exciting position. Group separation towards a more compelling side can be the result of this situation (Myers & Lamm, 1976).
A supplementary elucidation depends on Festinger’s social comparison theory (1954) which suggests that polarization is brought about by group member rivaling each other to underwrite the socially most attractive perspectives. Consenting with an accord (or going even past that) satisfies individuals’ craving for holding the satisfactory perspectives (www.earthsummit2002.org).
Essentially every of the studies in which division has been found were carried out in research center settings with impromptu groups in which the result was quite often theoretical (www.earthsummit2002.org). In natural settings the division impact is less predictable. An explanation for these inconsistencies may be that more lasting bodies set up standards about the communication structure which may hinder division (Sunstein, 2002).
2.5.4 Group Process
Generally, a collection of people is group when it possesses the following qualities;
i. the member communicate with each other, influence each other and react to one another;
ii. ability to act in a unitary manner;
iii. interdependence in satisfaction of needs; the members need the help of one another to accomplish the purpose for which they joined the group;
iv. a shared sense of purpose and belonging;
v. group consciousness; the members think of themselves as a group and possesses collective perception;
vi. a definable membership; a collection of two or more people identifiable by name or type (victornzekwu.hubpages.com).
2.6 Communication versus Process
It is important to note that there is a distinction between what a group is saying (communication) and how a group is dealing with it (process). When trying to observe what a group is taking about we are focusing on the content which is communicated most cases. And when trying to access how the group is handling the content i.e. who talks, how much or who talks to whom, we are simply trying to focus on the group (Richmond & McCroskey, 1997)
3 Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design:
H0 – The choice of leadership and communication skills is an integral part of intergroup relation and it has effective importance in a group process.
H1 – The choice of leadership and communication skills is an integral part of intergroup relation and it has no effective importance in a group process.
1. The opinion of the members of the sampled group with respect to choice of leadership communication is objective;
2. The respondents are going to answer question objectively;
3. The proposed research will stand the test of time.
The intend data to be generated are from both primary and secondary source; and are from origin with at least a research bias. For instance respondent in this proposed research will answer questionnaire with prejudice to their position, aim, standard and objective of joining such group.
Study Population: this comprised of members of a Labor Union in Kurdistan with different background and work cadre. The said union had about 467 registered members.
Sampling Technique: The study took on stratify sampling process. This guaranteed that all the selected categories of people were sampled.
Sample Size: The sample size covered 100 members and this is about 20% of the sample population.
Material/Sources of Data: For the study, both primary and secondary sources of data collection were engaged.
a. Primary Data: The primary data such as questionnaire was used.
i. Questionnaire: A total of hundred (100) copies of questionnaire was administered to the respondents.
b. Secondary Data: Internet sources, journals, newspaper, research thesis/projects and relevant textbooks were consulted
Data Analysis: The generated data were analyzed using simple frequency distribution.
4 Chapter Four: Findings and Discussion (Result/Data Analysis and Interpretations)
4.1 Demographic and socio-economic
The data analysis technique used in this research study is a simple proportion and percentages. A total of (16) items on Leadership Communication, an Integral Part of Intergroup Relation were drafted as it concerns with the objectives and the hypothesis.
Out of 100 questionnaire, 92 only were recovered
However the findings of this research are presented in the followings tables.
Source: Field work, April, 2016.
The above tables show the frequency distribution of the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. The respondents in total for this study is 92.The table shows the gender of the respondents, 56.5% of the respondents are male while 43.4% of the respondents are female.
Also, the table shows the age group of the respondents, 0% of the respondents were below 18; meaning that the labor union was not for under age. 21.7% of the respondents were between the age group 18-25, 38.04% of the respondents were between the age group 26-35, likewise 34.04% of respondents are between the age-group 30-50 while about 5.4% of respondents were 50 and above.
More so, the marital status of the respondents, 11.9% of the respondents were single, 72.8% of the respondents were married,10.8% of the respondents were divorced and 4.3% of the respondents were widows.
Furthermore, the table shows the educational background of the respondents, none of the the respondents works with nursery and primary school certificate, 5.4% of the respondents were secondary school graduate, 51% of the respondents have university degree, 43.5% of the respondents have post graduate degree. This implies that an average member of the union is educated and likely enlightened.
Therefore, the table shows the occupation of the respondents, 100% of the respondents were members of the labor force.
Table 2: to know the number of stages of group development starting from formation to maturity and identify leadership skill
Source: Field work, April, 2016.
INTERPRETATION: The above analysis shows that members of the union are of similar background. And members joining the group were given sense of belonging in accordance with the charismatic leadership.
Table 3: Identification of ways in which leadership communication can enhance group process to work more in close proximity achieving its goal
INTERPRETATION: the above table shows ways in which leadership could enhance group process. It is noted there is clarity of language and communication in the union, no member is outcast simply because they are carried along in the group, about 90% believed that there is conflict in the union caused by lack of understanding (meaning that the clarity of language used was effective). The leadership also established a model that did not segregate member rather binding union together.
Table 4: Analyzing the level of group cohesion under the pilot of a vibrant leader using clarified communication
The above table shows that before a group could be formed members must be specific, 100% supported that membership of the union was opened to workers and the percentage accepted there is an interpersonal relationship among the group. The respondents extremely had diversified opinion on the forms of responsibility designated to members and the leadership but the fact is that the group are getting along with each member saddled with a specific responsibility. 60% of the member of the union believed that being members was because they had a shared dream but joining the union for each member are some specified objectives.
5 Chapter Five: Conclusion and Further Suggestion
I would like to conclude that members of group do have similar background, the leadership is charismatic and that leadership enhance group process. Clarity of language and communication is an inevitable attributes of a group and because of this there was no conflict in the union caused by lack of understanding (meaning that the clarity of language used was effective). And these in conformity with Huang & Lin (2013), concentrating on leaders as the essential factor of impact, and from one viewpoint, leaders have a critical impact on members and group processes and results (Homan & Greer, 2013)
In all these parameters established, the hypothesis of this work can hold water meaning that “the choice of leadership and communication skills is an integral part of intergroup relation and it has effective importance in a group process.”
5.2 Further Suggestion (Future Research)
It was noted in this research work that the respondents extremely had diversified opinion on the forms of responsibility designated to members and the leadership but the fact is that the group are getting along with each member saddled with a specific responsibility. 60% of the member of the union believed that being members was because they had a shared dream but joining the union for each member are for some specified objectives. However, in in my opinion there are ulterior motives for people becoming member of a group and this will affect there are interpersonal relation in such group if their needs are no met.
At this juncture, it worthy to note that a very good research work will always give rise to another research, it is on this note I suggest that a research can also be staged to study ulterior motives in a group process its effect and other measures.