CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 General introduction
Workplace injuries and disease range in severity and might cause short-term or long-term pain, disability or death. As well as the impact on their health, injured workers will also be absent by work, suffer loss of income or simply even lose his or her job1.There are two major sequent of work related injury; fatal and nonfatal. This kind of research emphasizes on nonfatal injury that can result in permanent as well as temporary disabilities and ways of prevention.
In America, the rate of nonfatal work injury and illness situations requiring days from labor to recoup had been 117 cases each 10, 000 full-time workers throughout 2011, statistically unaffected from 2010, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The total number of private industry, state government, and local government cases with days away from work remained statistically unchanged at 1,181,2902.
In Malaysia, in 2009, there were being 397, 194 route accidents noted compared to 328, 268 inside of 2005, an increase 21 per cent. Out from the complete, there are more accidents with no personal injury when compared with accidents along with personal injury. The percentage of injury accidents declined from 11.9 per cent in 2005 to 6.4 per cent in 20093.
A preliminary complete of some 4,383 fatal work injuries were noted in the America in 2012, down from a revised count of 4,693 fatal work injuries in 2011, according to consequences from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) showed by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The rate including fatal work injury intended for U.S. labors in 2012 had been 3.2 per 100,000 full-time equivalent (FTE) labors, decline from a rate of 3.5 per 100,000 in 20114.
The frequency rate of occurrence of occupational accidents has steadily been dropping from 11.0 accidents per 1,000 workers in 2000 to 6.1 accidents per 1,000 workers in 2007. Although the frequency of occurrence of work-related fatalities appears to have risen from 9.5 deaths per 100,000 labors in 2002 to 12.9 deaths per 100,000 labors in 2004, and has more or less been rotting around the 12.4 ‘ 12.5 per 100,000 range over the period 2004 through to 20075.
A work of charge of work injuries with construction in the America 2011 revealed the total expenses of fatality and non-fatality from the construction industrial sectors were estimated at $188.9 billion in 2011, consists of wage and also productivity losses of $86.7 billion, medical costs of $52.3 billion, and administration costs of $34.2 billion. Includes employer’s uninsured expenses of $10.5 billion, such as the money value of time lost simply by workers apart from those using disabling incidents . In addition includes injuries to automobiles in labored related injuries of 2.4 billion and fire losses of 2.8 billion. The typical cost for every case connected with fatal or perhaps non-fatal injury is $1.3406.
Among some of the real difficulties raised by Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) experts surrounding the effective enactment of work safety in addition to health in this area according with a study in 2003 are for instance lack connected with concern through management; deficiency of awareness and trained Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) personnel; and fragile enforcement of Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) standards. In 2005 alone, SocSo had paid out RM 890 million in compensation to workers who had been involved with industrial accidents when compared to RM 840 million in 20047.
As the worker is actually rapidly growing older, analysis around the implications involving work injuries with old workers has become a lot more crucial. One particular adverse final result unique to older workers, early retirement living, has important negative social and economic consequences for workers in addition to employers. Though linked to poor worker health, the roles of workplace variables along with work-related injury have not also been well-defined. Eleven percent designed to give up work early due to their work injuries, and his or her outcomes were significantly more painful. In a multivariate classical, pre-injury dissatisfaction with the job is actually medical attention, and bad physical along with mental health and fitness status were in connection with intent to retire early 8.
1.2 Problem statement.
Work related injury is a public and significant problem as it moderates workers to do their job. It generated constant and short term disabilities to the workers and sometimes even demise. Most individual spend about 1/3 of their time at the workplace. Workers are shown to varied kinds of hazards such as physical, biological, and chemical agents. The ratio of the injured workers is unclear. This perhaps due to unreported cases. In real state, the injured workers, mostly work in the nation’s manufacturing sectors influencing more male workers compared to female. The vitality of this research is to find out the proportion of work related injury likewise the pattern of workers with a work related injury by gender, age, race, kind of business and quality employment.
1.3. General objectives.
To determine the proportion of work related injury among UPM staffs and students.
1.4 Specific objectives.
To determine the proportion of work related injuries among UPM staffs and Students.
To determine the demographic characteristic of injured workers.
To identify the occupational characteristic of injured workers.
To identify the injury characteristic of injured workers.
To determine the relationship between gender and with nature of injury.
To determine the relationship between gender and the type of industry.
There is a significant relationship between gender and the nature of injury.
There is a significant relationship between gender and the type of industry.
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4. Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary, 2012. 1’14 (2014).
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7. Safety, L. A. W. O. N., Soehod, K. B., Kunju, L. & Laxman, P. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. (2007).
8. Takala, J. & Saarela, K. L. Global Estimates of Fatal Work-Related Diseases. 41, 28’41 (2007).