Keywords: total safety management, traditional method, OSHA, safety training, safe environment, reliability, NSC, government laws and enforcement, TQM, safety committee, safety experts.
In an organization motivating the organizational members to safety system is the prime objective to be achieved. There are many sophisticated technologies are highly standardized in terms of safety rules and procedures , it is possible to detect the flaws occurring in the system behavior that are not anticipated by the system design. The compliance regarding safety flaws in rules and procedures provides high reliability in the system. Academic studies gives us few of the answers regarding how to strengthen employees safety with high reliability. But, the impact of leadership plays the most important role in following the practices. The major factor of cost in the organization is the safety aspect. Safety contributes vital role in the organization . However, cost plays the vital role, it also matter of time. Due to improper safety or lack of safety awareness accidents occurs in the industries. These accidents leads to loss of time also. There are various safety forms are introduced in companies. The most commonly used method are the traditional ways. It also enforces laws and government regulations. Safety experts from organizations sticking to the traditional technique for Safety direct and control laborers with the goal that they finish the normal organization safety benchmarks and regulations. They likewise uphold laws and government regulations. They are educated on new regulations, dedicated to force guidelines and regulations to their representatives, do assessments, review the framework, direct examinations of mischance and wounds, and build up proposals with a specific end goal to avert mishaps and wounds later on. For the Safety experts, holding fast to this idea implies changing the conduct of the laborer, spurring them, and utilizing prizes and motivations to help them work safely. Many safety professionals are strive to prefect the behaviors of the employees, they uses increment in incentives in order to make them work on safer environment. Meetings regarding safety, list of rules for safety, posting slogans, programs for safety, incentives, safety director, posters and safety committees are the most common elements of traditional safety programs includes. Most of the times the programs are get isolated or not integrated with the other aspects of the organization [1,7]. When a new program is introduced in an organization it need to integrated with the other systems. The injuries occurring during occupation is continues to challenge worldwide. In 1998, more than 9 out of 100 specialists in the industrial part encountered a harm at work that required restorative consideration (National Safety Council [NSC] in the year 1999).
As indicated by NSC, mishaps and their results keep on being a not worthy general safety concern. Those in the business have generally centered endeavors on lessening wounds through designing controls and going to physical states of the workplace. Albeit basically essential, numerous safety experts perceive that there are different components that altogether impact the probability of damage to representatives . There few prevention methods to avoid the errors, those techniques are particularly centered around the small scale organization . There are some methods focused on large scale. But, the great deal on that is, it gives lack of development, even it gives the results, it is only negligible. The improvement of the society is directly related to the technological development of the company [12,11]. For several years, scholars are developing models to quantify and characterize the cost, including indirect cost of workplace accidents. On that basis, OSHA technique is one of them. OSHA terms stands for Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The U.S. Congress made OSHA under the Word related Safety and Safety Demonstration of 1970(the OSH Act). Congress passed the law and built up OSHA ,to guarantee so far as could reasonably be expected each working man and lady in the country sheltered and restorative working conditions and to safeguard the human resource. OSHA started in light of the fact that, until 1970, there were no national laws for security and safety perils. Later OSHA standardized the safety practices. Most present safety rehearses in the industry area depend on the regulating approach which concentrate on measures to control dangers and foresee dangerous conditions so they conform to endorsed safety [2,3,4].
There are numerous types of safety administration in the commercial enterprises. The sorts most normally utilized are the traditional strategy for safety administration and aggregate safety administration [5,6]. Safety experts from businesses holding fast to the customary strategy for safety administration direct and control laborers so they finish the normal mechanical safety guidelines . They likewise authorize laws and government regulations. They are committed to force regulations to their workers, complete examinations, review the framework, direct examinations of mishaps, and build up proposals so as to anticipate mischance in the future. The Safety experts from organizations sticking to the traditional technique for Safety direct and control laborers with the goal that they finish the normal organization Safety benchmarks and regulations. They likewise uphold laws and government regulations. They are educated on new regulations, dedicated to force guidelines and regulations to their representatives, do assessments, review the framework, direct examinations of mischance and wounds, and build up proposals with a specific end goal to avert mishaps and wounds later on. For the Safety experts, holding fast to this idea implies changing the conduct of the laborer, spurring them, and utilizing prizes and motivations to help them work safely. Prizes are offered just to those laborers or divisions that meet the preset Safety destinations (Smith, 1996). The customary Safety administration programs don’t generally enhance the consequences of safety since they are focused only on the specialized necessities and on acquiring fleeting results(Weinstein, 1996) experts attempt to alter the conduct of the specialist, and use prizes and motivations to help them work safely [8,10]. Despite the fact that the idea of TSM is generally new in the assembling commercial enterprises, it is picking up ubiquity because of its capacity to grasp different elements like mental, administrative and behavioral [9,12]. Complete safety administration is an execution arranged methodology which gives an association a manageable upper hand in the worldwide commercial center by building up a protected workplace that is reliable with crest execution and energize consistent change . TSM as a key and organized methodology discovers its roots from aggregate quality management (TQM) standards by retribution consumer loyalty and persistent change as its two noteworthy managing standards [13,14]. The main role of TSM is to give perfection in safety through ceaseless changes of items and procedures by the aggregate inclusion and commitment of every person who is in a part of that procedure/item . Safety administration correspondence and safety preparing stressed model can possibly impact the authoritative execution . The customary safety administration programs don’t generally enhance the consequences of safety since they are fixated solely on the specialized prerequisites and on acquiring transient results. Another weakness of the traditional safety administration system is that the project is disengaged and commonly not incorporated with whatever is left of the elements of an association [16,17]. The obligation of the safety program falls on the safety chief, who possesses a position inside the association of the organization and, by and large, does not have the power to roll out improvement . Due to such complex nature of traditional projects and the downsides are very uncovered, the difficulties for analysts and specialists is to create all out safety frameworks that are at the same time exceedingly profitable and exceptionally dependable . It requires a treatment of safety from an aggregate point of view taking into account the effect of safety on authoritative work society, generation weights and work systems [21,23]. It is against this foundation that is gets to be related to investigate and distinguish the impact of executed aggregate safety administration model on authoritative execution in production industry .
In the industry, the existing method of safety does not meet the safety requirements and protect the workforce. Therefore, a detailed study on each and every process or operation in a particular department has to be conducted. It will help in analyzing and evaluating the system from safety perspective which will bring total safety management philosophy into context. So, based on the TSM concepts and principles, the impact rating test can be conducted for all operations thereby formulate methodologies and form techniques in order to reduce the accidents.
2.OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH:
1. To introduce and implement TSM concepts in the industry.
2. To conduct the impact rating test for all process/operation.
3. To provide the model of TSM for reference.
4. To evaluate and analyse the system from safety aspects and provide adequate recommendations.
3.BASIC ELEMENTAL FEATURES OF TSM:
The functional content of TSM with its eight basic elements are as follows:
1. Concentrate on the long-range goal of developing a method, on long-term annual accident.
2. Discard the philosophy of accepting accidents.
3. Use statistical techniques to identify the two sources of accidents. They are the system error and human made error.
4. Institute more thorough job skills training.
5. Eliminate dependence on an accident investigation. Instead, use proactive methods such as behavioural sampling, fishbone figures, flow charts, representations, etc., to reveal system errors and to achieve continuous system improvement.
6. Provide supervisors with knowledge of statistical methods and ensure that these tools are used to identify areas needing additional study.
7. Reduce fear throughout the organization by encouraging all employees to report system defects and help find solutions.
8. Reduce accidents by designing safety into the process. Train researchers and design personnel in technological safety concepts.
4.COMPONENTS OF TSM:
The three components that are needed to take the TSM philosophy to practice are
a) A TSM committee,
b) Teams for improvement, and
c) A facilitator:
The committee/experts would define the politics occurring in the safety and health, approve the rules and procedures of work related to worker safety and health, provide the resources, and approve the recommendations carried out by the teams of improvement.
The teams for improvement will give improvements related to the environment of work.
And the facilitator, an professional in the safety and health, possibly the director or person responsible for safety within the company, will take the responsibility of implementing the TSM program.
5.STEPS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TSM:
1. Gain executive-level commitment.
2. Establish the TSM steering committee.
3. Mould the steering committee into a team.
4. Give the steering committee safety and health awareness training.
5. Develop the organization’s safety and health vision guiding principles.
6. Develop the organization’s safety and health mission and objectives.
7. Communicate and inform Identification and measure.
8. Identify the organization’s safety and health strengths and weakness.
9. Identify the defenders and opponents of safety and health.
10. Benchmark initial employee perceptions concerning the work environment.
11. Make it extensive to the organization.
12. Identify specific improvement projects Execution/implementation.
13. Create improvement project teams.
14. Activate the feedback loop (new projects/new teams).
15. Establish a TSM culture.
Safety administration frameworks are produced and actualized to distinguish, assess, control and at last diminish danger and to create various layers of barriers that keep mischance from happening. Be that as it may, as clarified beforehand these safety administration frameworks are imperfect both their improvement and usage, maybe because of the way that these frameworks can’t foresee and control all conceivable work circumstances and that these frameworks have a tendency to be moderate to adjust to changing circumstances or vulnerability due to their unbending, controlled and confused structures. Safe work methods are produced to give the strides important to safety execute assignments free of harm and ailment. They give vital and predictable data to laborers of what is anticipated from them from a safety viewpoint. There can be significant variety in safe work technique improvement, substance and organization. Safe work techniques can assume an essential part in guaranteeing that normal, complex errands are executed securely. Safe work methods can be produced with representative impact and overhauled at different frequencies. At the point when safety episodes do happen, associations can research those mischance with a definitive objective of decreasing the likelihood of the occasion happening once more. Safety examination in an administration may differ place to place. In this fast world, safety execution is a key issue for the commercial enterprises to wind up a world-class contender. During working process in hazardous or common industrial area injuries may happen, due to this fertile or semi fertile accident may happen. This leads even to death and loss of human resource. Word related mishaps can be diminished through successful precaution measures by danger appraisal, great housekeeping, preparing, and better personal protective equipment(PPE). So as to build up a decent safety culture, the state of mind of the laborers should be reoriented by embracing best practices, great housekeeping, and changes in work culture and work rehearses. Word related mischance are regular in India, as in numerous other creating nations.
Forecast of different sorts of mishaps helps directors to plan authoritative approaches for enhancing safety execution. Klein and Kozlowski (2000) depict worldwide information focuses as being top-town and to a great extent inside of the control of hierarchical chiefs. Bliese and Jex (2002) further depict them as target gathering properties that change between gatherings however not inside of them. As far as the presence of these worldwide information focuses, they either exist or they don’t exist in a target sense and act to make a setting in which laborers complete their work. These safety administration framework hones don’t speak to a type of connection involved through perceptual procedures of specialists, for example, safety atmosphere or administration commitment (Guldenmund, 2010). Accordingly, measures, (for example, laborer engagement or feeling of working environment equity) which take advantage of representative observations might be considered as results of the target safety administration framework rehearses that are set up. Safety society is a subcomponent of authoritative society, which considers influencing individuals’ states of mind and conduct in connection to an association’s progressing safety and safety execution. The term safety culture first showed up in the 1987 OECD nuclear agency report (on the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe). Safety society is much of the time recognized, for instance by debacle request, as being key to an association’s capacity to oversee safety related parts of its operations effectively or something else. Safety society contains demeanors, practices, standards, and qualities, individual obligations and such hr highlights as preparing and advancement. The safety society idea develops as it assimilates floods of gaining from assorted examination and authoritative sources. The safety society idea, due to its potential outcomes and ambiguities, is turned out to be a boost for some to pick up a more profound comprehension of the cutting edge innovative association as an unpredictable framework with numerous intuitive and versatile elements. It additionally uncovers the advancement that is being made and the difficulties to be confronted, as specialists and professionals endeavor to make the idea significant for associations that desire to utilize behavioral change as a method for enhancing safety execution. Safety society is a subcomponent of hierarchical society, which considers influencing individuals’ states of mind and conduct in connection to an association’s progressing security and safety execution. The term safety culture first showed up in the 1987 OECD nuclear agency report (on the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe). Safety society is every now and again distinguished, for instance by debacle request, as being major to an association’s capacity to oversee safety related parts of its operations effectively or something else. Safety society includes dispositions, practices, standards, and qualities, individual obligations and also such human resource highlights as preparing and advancement. The safety society idea develops as it assimilates surges of gaining from assorted examination and hierarchical sources.
The safety society idea, on account of its conceivable outcomes and ambiguities, is turned out to be a boost for some to pick up a more profound comprehension of the present day technological organization as a perplexing framework with numerous intuitive and versatile components. It additionally uncovers the advancement that is being made and the difficulties to be confronted, as scientists and specialists endeavor to make the idea important for associations that desire to utilize behavioral change as a method for enhancing safety execution. Safety practice is a central safety rehearse accentuated by most government and state safety and safety administrative bodies. Safety preparing works by expanding information and attention to health and safety in the work environment. There is impressive variety in the ways that safety preparing is planned and conveyed. For instance, a few associations may choose to prepare workers to least consistence destinations in one 10 h session for each year. An alternate organization may prepare representatives 20 h for each year in 2 h increases and go past consistence prerequisites to join content tending to the workmanship and exploration of peril acknowledgment, assessment, and control. Specialists propelled the idea of TSM, showing that numerous ideas, standards, tenets, specialized and included goals, of the TQM could move the TSM, with the unique shift of quality(q) for safety(s). The issue of segregation that quality executives had, when quality was solely the obligation of the branch of value or the chief of value, was settled with TQM. TQM makes everyone included in the procedures of value, and the executive of value acts like an organizer and colleague. The same kind of disconnection happens with safety, where the top administration and laborers once in a while consider safety to be the obligation of the safety office or the safety chief. In these cases, the TSM could likewise ensure everyone is included in the points of safety, and the elements of the safety chief would be one of organizing the procedures and encouraging the vital assets by underlining the thought of arranging safety utilizing the methods of insight of TQM, and remarks that one could get, by method for the support of laborers, the making of another society where safety is seen as a key worth, where factual devices are utilized to take care of issues, where ceaseless enhancements are stressed, and where markers are utilized to quantify the nature of the framework and not the nature of the outcomes.
7.ADOPTED MODEL OF TSM:
Figure:2(Adopted from Dennis Xavier, 2015)
Total safety management (TSM) concept can effectively been used as a strategic tool to boost up the organizational performance. It ensures a safe work environment that is consistent, efficient and structured. This model emphasis on TSM leadership communication and TSM training that positively influence the organizational performance that helps in reducing accidents and incident rates, improve safety practices and customer satisfaction, enhance productivity and profitability. TSM nurtures constructive safety leadership and safety training that resides in every function in an organization.
TSM leadership communication motivates team members to perform harder in field, to perform efficiently, and to take ownership of responsibility for safety performance. Operations under TSM are free of unrealistic numerical targets and are managed by facts and effective leadership that drives daily improvement to all processes at all levels. There is proactive safety leadership that interacts effectively with other functions. Developing and sustaining safety leadership communication is important to reduce accidents and to promote safety among managers and general employees. Three components namely safety commitment, safety control and safety culture provide adequate inputs for TSM leadership communication.TSM is a truly systemic approach in which effective safety commitment is enabled, with an effective communication system that enables the free communication of ideas for improvement.. Safety culture comprises attitudes/character, behaviors, normal and personal values, personal duties as well as such HR features as training and development.. TSM favors a safety control system that does not rely on frequent safety inspection and audit. Instead, safety leadership communication will influence the system.. The increasing attention being paid to safety leadership in various industries is the evidence of the assumption that safety leadership will result in increased organizational safety effectiveness and performance.
TSM training is a fundamental safety practice emphasized by most central and state safety and health legislative bodies. Safety training provides the means for making accidents more predictable. There is considerable variation in the ways that safety training is designed and delivered. Three components namely safety education, safety motivation and safety participation gives more values for TSM training. Safety training works by increasing safety education, safety motivation and involving safety participation in the workplace. Safety education is known to influence a number of employee behaviors which invariably have an impact on organizational performance by creating awareness among the workforce. Management commitment to safety motivation is a major factor influencing the success of an organization’s safety programs which encourages the employees to opt for safe work procedures. Safety participation can manifest itself through job training programs, management participation in safety committees, consideration of safety in job design, and review of the pace of work. Most industries globally banks on safety training as a means to ensure a better stability and organizational performance.
According to OSHA standards, the impact rating and probability of occurrence rating with criteria for each and every operation, machines, and equipments are shown in table 1.
The report mentioned in the below table 1 is explained with the notions as follows:
H-High risk; M-Medium risk; L-Low risk
1-Non reportable accident; 2-Reportable accidents; 3-Impactful accidents; 4-Semi fertile accidents; 5-Fertile accidents
Reportable accidents vs Impactful accidents
Impactful accidents vs semi-fatal accidents
10.EVOLUTION AND IMPACT OF TSM IN INDUSTRY:
The research study demonstrated that workplace safety is not simply an issue of doing the right thing or avoiding associated costs rather than establishing a safety culture thereby creating a safe environment. Analyzing the results of occupational safety and health in the industry, two of the phases were identified namely traditional method of safety management and total safety management. Since the probability of occurrence of fatal injuries is very less in the industry, TSM concepts were recommended. A proper integration of TSM into the system ensured stability in the context of workers safety. Also, TSM implementation results bolster the business case for safety. These findings offer good news for safety professionals because they add to the arsenal of arguments for investing in initiatives to improve safety environments and reduce accidents/injuries. As the accident/incident rates are in the downward trend under the action of TSM, there are positive outcomes to be gained in the form of safe work practices, safety culture, better organizational performance and improved customer satisfaction.
Trend line of accident numbers in a company
Arising from the findings from this paper, it is confessed that the management of the industry should take the following measures:
i. Government enactment of safety legislation with stiffer penalties on companies that are not safety conscious in their operations.
ii. Continuous safety audit of equipments and work site to identify and eliminate work place hazards.
iii. Vibrant safety campaigns/meetings on workplace hazards/control awareness.
iv. Frequent review of corporate safety policies to accommodated changes in the industrial environment.
v. Regular training/re-training of safety personnel and the entire workforce on safe work procedures.
TSM provides the industry with sustainable gains and competitiveness. The impact rating table and the evolution of TSM that is graphically represented clearly shows the pattern of accidents and the frequency of incidents rates. Therefore, under the action of TSM in the industry, the accident numbers are declining and the flow of accidents are in the downward trend.