In a study conducted by Kotz and Story, it was also found that 43.6% of food advertisements given on television consist of fat and sugar involving foods such as candy, chocolate, drinks and cakes. Only 1.6% of the advertisements were about food with high nutrition levels such as meat, fish, legume and eggsand there were no fruit or vegetable advertisements. Kotz K & Story M (1994). Eating habits have a significant impact on health. Eating a food which is high intakes of fats and saturated fats and low intakes of fruits and vegetables are linked to health problems such as increased risks of coronary heart disease, certain cancers, diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Coon KA and colleagues (2001).
There are a number of collective factors which influences the decision making of individuals about food.The factors are familial factors, food supply and food acquisition (e.g., at home, work, markets, and through fast food outlets) (Taylor, Evers & McKenna 2005). A study shown the important role of television in shaping young peopleâs intake of increased calorie rich, low nutrient food. Most of that food is advertised on television and indirectly increased television viewing with increased calorie intake (Wiecha et al. 2006).
Successful campaigns have been organised by Goverment of Netherland and it were focused on preventing weight gain. A 3 year mass media campaign (âMaak je niet dik!â literally translated as âdonât get fat!â) implemented in the Netherlands resulted in high campaign awareness, more positive attitudes, greater social support and positive intentions to prevent weight gain (Wammes, Oenema & Brug 2007). One of the theoretical frameworks frequently mentioned in health literature which has relevance to the stages ofchange that people experience as they make behavioural changes (e.g., to their diet), Prochaska and DiClimenteâs (1986). According to this framework behavioural change happens when individuals are ready to change, and it occurs in a cyclical process which might involve progress and relapse. The stages distinguished in the model include precontemplation (where behaviour change is not yet considered), contemplation (thinking about change), preparation (planning to change), action (actively changing) and maintenance (sustaining change) (Prochaska & DiClemente 1986).
The nutrition intervention programs are more likely to be successful if it considers factors which influence food choice, as well as a theoretical framework which incorporates a focus on changes in health-related behaviours, for example Prochaska and DiClementeâs stages of change model (Gracey et al. 1996).
Few research did on promotion and communication strategies include advertising, posters and other communication media used to announce and encourage consumption of healthy food choices such as fruit and vegetable. There are seceral promotional events that are commonly used such as price reductions, new menu items, and modified recipes. Promotion and communication are most often included as part of health promotion activities (K. Glanz & Hoelscher 2004). A variety of factors have been associated with healthful dietary behaviors; among the strongest factors are availability and accessibility of healthy foods, the frequency of family meals, and parental intake. Both household food availability and accessibility (whether available foods are in a form or location that facilitates their consumption) have been positively associated with healthful dietary intake in youth (Grimm GC, Harnack L & Story M. 2004)