B – the various factors affecting the cost of the marketing mix and try to clarify the interpretation of the correlation and impact between the cost of the marketing mix and performance evaluation.
C – the diagnosis and determine the better standards of performance for the company sample of the study in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and customer satisfaction and profitability requirements.
4. hypotheses Study Hypotheses
The study is based on two assumptions main two:
A – There is a significant correlation between the cost of the marketing mix and performance evaluation.
B – no moral effect relationship between the cost of the marketing mix and performance evaluation.
5. The limits of the study Study Bounders
Place Bounders A – spatial boundaries: it has been chosen the Baghdad Soft Drinks Company as a sample for the study being the closest and most appropriate to achieve the objective of the study and key assumptions from the standpoint of researchers.
Time Bounders B – temporal limits: extended time period of the study beginning with select themes and directions and ending with the completion of its goals from 03/11/2009 until 15/03/2010
Human Bounders C – Human Frontier: The study sample included 24 individuals from working in Baghdad Company for soft drinks from various levels in the company.
6. Study Approach Study Procedure
The study descriptive and analytical approach adopted , such as logical analysis based on the theoretical aspect of the study , while the analysis and statistical inference based on the practical side of them, through the study of the correlation and impact between the main and sub - variables.
7. style data and information collection Styles of Date Collection
It included the data necessary for the completion of the study and information gathering process on a range of styles and are as follows:
A – the theoretical side: based on the theoretical aspect of the study on several sources , namely:
– Books and literature and Arab and foreign periodicals. – Arab and foreign research conferences.
– Theses and Alatarih. – The international information network ( the Internet).
B – the practical side: where he was relying on the following methods:
– Personal interviews: This includes direct questions to get some answers from the sample and explain some things vague to ensure the accuracy of the answers have contributed to these interviews to obtain information , according to the study by On the other hand made it clear to staff and workers of the marketing mix concepts and evaluate the performance and the variables that the researchers easy application side practical.
– Official sources: the researchers relied on the company researched records and availability of documents and statistics in order to obtain the required data and information that serve the orientations of the study.
– Questionnaire: Due to the nature of the study and must be applied to the sample of the study the researchers found that the questionnaire is the most appropriate tools to achieve the objectives of this study.
It is an easy and suitable and economical (Oppenhein, 1996,43 And ( (Nannaly, 1978,152 Because the resolution also refers to both the ( In the effort, time and money can be a scientific means available to identify the respondents exciting questions and selected carefully arranged with a view to collect the necessary data. The adoption of a questionnaire form included the variables of the study two main cost of the marketing mix and evaluate the performance of different Baavadahma and on the basis of the Five, as shown below: Likert Scale
I do not agree
The second topic
Theoretical concepts for study
Firstly – The concept of cost reduction:
Costs have become the focus of all business organizations which occupies cost of great significance in determining the prices of their products and because of that this concept is closely linked to achieving the goals of the organization in terms of seeking to reduce the cost of the product compared to income earned , which helps to achieve the profits needed for those organizations. With the development of business organizations and the evolution of its product development and expansion of the concept of cost which has come to mean a lot to those organizations as defined cost as ” a resource immolated done to achieve the goal or a specific purpose and this cost measured in existing cash and payable in the procurement of goods and services.” (Horngren, et, al, 2000 : 26) .
So that the cost reduction process is one of the major tasks in business organizations, which mainly affect the level of income generated by those organizations. I have said many researchers to the concept of cost reductions as it has been defined as ” to achieve real and constant savings in the unit cost of goods manufactured or service provided without affecting p Li suitability required for use. “(Azwaini 2007, the. 60)
And cost reduction process known also as “style scheme , which aims to improve efficiency through the optimal use of the elements of cost and speed in completing operations or increase production so as to reduce the unit cost of producing it without affecting the quality and functions . ” (Samarrai 1999.15.) , As must be done to reduce cost process without compromising the quality and specifications of the commodity produced or sold Awalkhaddmh performed for example , the use of poor quality materials being of lower costs in a particular commodity industry Ayad reduction of the costs of raw materials used in my industry. (Azwaini 2007, the. 60)
And it can be summed up the importance of reducing the cost of the following: (Samarrai 1999.18)
1. The importance of reducing the cost of the existing relationship between the cost and the profit level and the price of products or services offered by the organization.
2. The cost reduction process helps to strengthen the competitive position of the organization as the provision of moderately priced products will enable the organization to compete with other products on the market and this depends on how the efficiency of production and the extent of reflection on cost reduction.
3. The lower costs lead to the economy and careful in the use of production elements to it the proper way to achieve production efficiency.
4. The cost – cutting process of the organization will help to increase their profits and enhance its capital , enabling it to expand its production.
So that the cost reduction process is the responsibility of all staff and workers in the organization and the cost reduction process affected by a series of interrelated factors with each other , whether administrative or regulatory factors , artistic or environmental factors.
Second – the concept of the marketing mix:
Marketing mix is the essence of the marketing process as before touched on the concept of the marketing mix has to be noted that the concept of marketing , where the word, which means the market , so the beginning of the marketing appearance is due to the roots Market The word is derived from the Latin term Marketing Marketing ancient historical dating back to tell human trade. It is the most important definitions that indicated the marketing concept is the definition of the American Marketing Association and who identified marketing as ” the planning and implementation of policies that create and pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services in order to achieve exchanges that will serve the goals of the individual and the organization Operation” . (Keywords .2001: 20) Mix kotler The marketing mix varied views and opinions of researchers in tariff Below is the most important definitions of that term as defined catalog “range of marketing variables midwife to control it which is used by organizations to achieve its goals in the marketplace Bana (Kotler, 1997: 112) Target. ”
While Abdali and other marketing mix as ” a mixture of the main activities by which the product is a study in line with the wishes of the customer ‘s needs and then study and determine the appropriate price and compete for the allegiance and then promote it and then distribute it and deliver it to the place and time appropriate for known satisfy the needs and desires of customers loudest possible level and to achieve an appropriate profit or achieve the goals of the existence of the organization. “(Abdali et al. , 1998.20) has been known to mix Bana (ingredients or combinations of variables or groups that fall under the (Wheelen & Hunger, 2004: 90 Lama ( Control of the organization (product – price – promotion – distribution) which can be used to influence the demand and improve the competitive position of the organization. ” From the above definitions of the concept of the marketing mix, the researchers knew the marketing mix as ” a comprehensive and integrated activities and actions by the organization in terms of design and produce products and pricing, promotion, distribution in order to serve the objectives of the organization and meets the needs and desires of customers and achieve the highest possible level of profit system.”
Third – the marketing mix elements:
Marketing of the four key elements mix consists, as follows:
A – Product: Product crucial element of the marketing mix elements longer rely on it as the other elements of the marketing mix (price, promotion and distribution) Since the product ‘s success depends on the customer , so the the organization that seeks to design products that ensure the achievement of the wishes and requirements of customers.
That the product is the marketing mix and marketing operations center and the heart of the formulation of a strategy for the product (Rosenberg, 1990: 261 He has confirmed (not only involving the marketing elements, but other elements of marketing such as senior management and management of research and development, production management and production processes involved in order to able to meet customer needs product. Given the importance of the product on the level of the marketing mix, many writers and researchers have pointed to several long relationship to this concept of the most important definition Has the product known as “anything can be accessed through the exchange process.” (Ferrell & Pride, 2000: 250 ) Has the product known as “anything presented to the market in order to attract attention and possession or use (Kotler & Armstrong, 2005: 223 ) Either or use and that meets the needs and desires of the customer. ”
While known (Keywords and Tai . , 1999: 81) product in the broad understood as “everything a physical tangible or intangible received by the individual through the exchange process and in this context, the product may be in the form of a good or service or idea or any combination brings them . ” .
It can determine the importance of the product , both for the seller or the buyer and as follows: (Bakri 2002: 166)
1. The product is considered as a key ring in achieving contact between buyer and seller process.
2. The main interest in this episode (product) by the producer or seller will undoubtedly increase the status and location of the organization in the market and increase the level of their profits.
3. The product contributes greatly to the creation of a state social evolution among individuals.
B – Price: All organizations , whether for – profit or non-profit develops prices for their products , as pricing is the most difficult decisions Marketing taken by the organization due to the direct association with the product and the customer.
(Kotler, 1997: 494) Therefore , the price is one of the most prominent elements of the mix Waltz and protects the organization for the following reasons:
1. The only item from the rest of the elements in the marketing mix , which is the kuna generator of income and profits is considered.
2. characterized as more elements of the marketing mix flexible and responsive to change depending on any emergency in the surrounding environment of the Organization.
3. prices and the prices are competitive occupies the first place in terms of difficulty and problems faced by marketing managers in the organization and because of its significant impact on the sustainability of the organization and its continuation and to achieve profits or the contrary.
It is an appropriate starting point out that the price given him the names of many synonyms meet the views of dealers in its conception or field of work that are working and which altogether may vary in terms of content and content Alaanha is being the price for that one thing that is being dealt with. (Bakri 2002.232) Because there Taareva multiple forms for the price of the most important: the price is defined as ” the amount of coins and other elements that benefit them to get a product . ” ( Stanton, et, al, 1997: 274) (Zikmand & Amico, 1993: 688 The price is defined as ” an expression of the value of things that are exchanged in the market” (and more broadly the price is defined as ” the sum of all values (money), which replaces the consumer compared to the benefits of possession or use of the product or service . ” (Kotler & Armstrong, 2005: 302 ( And that this definition corresponds to a large extent with the various dimensions of the meaning of the price and the multiplicity of trends in viewing it. As the price of great importance for organizations because it is an important factor in covering the costs of doing different with activities to achieve total (Lancaster & Mossinghamn, 1993: 212 Yield and thus the profits accruing calculated. ( And pricing many goals can be summarized as the following: (slaves, 1997.162)
1. survival and the Stability and Growth 2. maximize sales 3. The increase in product market share
4. achieve profits 5. Building a good reputation of the product
C – Promotion: Most researchers confirms the importance of the process of communication between the customer and the organization as to what this process from an active role in enhancing the customer relationship and loyalty to the organization product.
Valtroyj itself is , as one of the marketing mix of the organization and one of the most important elements of marketing activities that help to consolidate the mental image of the product that organization with the customer through informed on an ongoing basis the benefits of the various product and its price and the places available.
It is known as the promotion as “one of the marketing mix elements of the organization that is being used for news and urged remind the market as it sells Organization (Stanton, et, al, 1997 : 440 Products and hopes to have the influence of the recipient through his feelings and behavior and beliefs. “(While he knew Abu cranium as a ” coordinating all the efforts of vendors to set the information channels and persuasion for the purpose of sale of goods and services and the promotion of ideas. “(Abu cranium, 2001.397)
Lama al – Bakri is defined promoted as a “multi – system that shapes and unreacted between its parts and is aimed at achieving effective influence audience ( Consumers to purchase goods or services. “(Bakri 2002.205 (Kotler & Armstrong, 2005: 507 As the promotion process consists of a set of activities are as follows: (Announcement – personal selling – sales promotion – advertising – public relations – Direct Marketing) There are many factors that affect the promotion process can determine the most important of the following: (Bakri 2002.223-225)
1. The target market: where the administration is responsible for the promotional activity in the decision significantly influenced by the nature of the market you are dealing with in terms of ( the geographic extent of the market – population density – characteristics of the buyer).
2. The nature of the product: as the products vary according to their nature , whether in terms of characteristics that distinguish them from the use or purpose which means adopted for those products promotional activity difference.
3. stage in the product life cycle: as the product when it is in the stage of progress it needs more promotional effort to install and quality in the market.
4. The financial allocations available: where is the financial allocations earmarked for the promotional activity with a large and important impact in the exercise and the use of promotional activity.
(Lanca ster & Mossinghamn, 1993: 262 The goals pursued by the organization behind undertaking the process of promotion are as follows 🙁 1. supply current and prospective customers with everything that is new and useful to them information about the products they handle. 2. cope with the existing competition in the market and to seek the best market share. 3. correcting errors occurring in realizing customers about the products offered to them 4. constant reminder to the product and not forgotten by customers. 5. closer relationship and communication formats with brokers and stimulate demand for them.
D – Distribution: Distribution is one of the elements of the marketing mix and includes all activities undertaken by the administration , which related to the delivery item to the customer for the purpose of satisfying their needs and desires through different distribution outlets.
Distribution and is defined as ” the process by which the transfer of goods or services from the place of production to the place of consumption or use.” (Mourning and Suwaidan, 1998, . 168) Also known as “intermediary organizations aiming to make the product or service available for use or consumption.” (Bakri 2002.260) as ” an activity that helps the flow of material and non – material products from product to (Kotler & Armstrong, 2 005: 332 While we knew ( the consumer with high efficiency on the one hand and the appropriate quantity and time on the other. ” That the main objective of the distribution function is to make the product available to the buyer which made him (Boyd & Massy, 1984: 378 And it refers both ( Accessible in places that are believed to be adequate to meet the buyer ‘s request and make the product available does not include only physical presence for this product , but must be also available for examination should be offered more attractive and draw the attention of buyers to the benefits of the product and the consolidation of its properties in their minds.
Fourth – performance evaluation:
The performance evaluation one of the main methods and means for organizations seeking to achieve its objectives efficiently and effectively as the performance evaluation is an indication For its organization of the results and to compare the objectives set out in advance , in addition to the performance evaluation is considered as one of the important means to ensure The safety of the use of resources at the disposal of the administration and verification of the integrity of the highest possible efficiency. So we will address in this paragraph to the concept of performance evaluation and its components and its objectives and its importance, types and factors affecting it.
A – The concept of performance evaluation:
Performance as ” a reflection of the ability of the organization and its ability to achieve its goals.” (Kabrati, 2005.87) Eccles Know
(Wheelen & Hunger, 2004: 231 Or is ” the final result of the activities of the organization.” ( (Wright, 1998: 259 Also known as ( the desired results the organization is trying to achieve). ( It describes the performance Bana ( the organization ‘s ability to achieve its objectives through wi long as the resources available – duck leaflet efficient and effective). (Daft, 1992: 120) Or a Tq Wim process performance Vta rack on it ( the process of measuring the achievement of M. de organizer of the LAH Duff Walt j j nine of Lus well to it and that by comparing p n (Hilton et al, 2000: 266) The actual results achieved with the planned results).
While Eldahraoa knew the process of performance evaluation as ( a tool to find out how to use the group to its available resources to achieve the goals laid down and identify deviations from targets and make corrections ). ( Eldahraoa, 1995 , 427) as the process is known performance evaluation as ( the process by which the administration and provide all levels of information about the performance of activities within the The organization through which to judge the performance by the criteria in the budgets, plans and objectives ). (Blocher, et, al, 1999: 723 )
B – elements of performance evaluation :
Process includes evaluating the performance of a set of elements of the most important :
1. Effectiveness element Effectivness : It is intended to achieve the degree of effectiveness of the Organization for their specific goals (Daft, 2001: 64) .
2. efficiency element Efficiency : It is intended efficient ability to achieve the maximum output of specific inputs (Robbin, 1995: 134) .
3 – Economic Economi cal : It is about reducing the cost of resources used in the completion of various activities taking into account the preservation of quality or reduce spending to the limit 89 Which is absolutely necessary to perform the task . ( Kabrati, 2005 ).
4. Environment Environment : Organization means the environment in which they operate any organization that works to achieve environmental goals at the same time it works to achieve its own goals , which leads to maximize the positive contributions and reduce Alatharalmah to a minimum . ( Al – Azzawi 2006 , 19)
C – the goals of performance evaluation :
Performance evaluation process aimed at achieving the following :
1. stand on the level of achievement of the organization in charge of the functions of its performance compared to those posts listed in its productivity .
2. detect glitches and weaknesses of the organization ‘s activities and conduct a thorough analysis of its causes , and the statement in order to develop the necessary solutions to them and correct them and prevent their occurrence in the future .
3 – stand on the adequacy of the use of available resources in a rational check Amos Id largest less high quality costs . ( Karkhi 2001 (40
4. aims performance evaluation to make sure that managers Athvzon towards the goals of the manna Zmh and goals set for it in advance .
5. performance evaluation is designed to evaluate the managers assume the responsibilities vested in them effectively . ( Kabrati, 2005: (91
6. performance evaluation is aimed at mainstream phenomena that led to efficient performance .
7. Performance Evaluation to the rationalization of administrative decisions aims through providing management with the necessary data on the results of evaluating the performance aspects of the activities of different . ( Sawadi, 2005: (61
8. aims performance evaluation to find a kind of competition between the various sections and departments and organizations, which in turn pushes the organization to improve its level of performance . ( Husseini : 2000 (233
9. activate the regulatory agencies in the performance of work by the information provided by performance evaluation process shall be able to verify that the organization its activity efficiently and effectively high and accomplish their targets set as required . ( Karkhi 2001 , 40)