Marketing – national branding

Chapter 1


1.1 Introduction

Nation branding has gained vital attention of academicians in recent times mainly because of enhanced thrust upon the globalization (Kaneva and Popescu, 2011). The concept of country’s image on product is prevalent for many decades (Papadopoulos and Heslop, 2002; Shimp, et al, 1993) but nation branding is a relatively new phenomenon and development in academic discourse. Many countries have indulged into the branding effort in order to present new image of country so that country can create new possibilities. The trend in nation’s branding can be traced in the form of popular slogan such as ‘incredible India’ (India), Alive with Possibility (South Africa), and ‘Truly Asia’ (Malaysia) (Kaneva and Popescu, 2011). Indian Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi launched ‘Make in India Campaign’ with much fanfare in 2014 with obvious motive of transforming India into global hub of manufacturing. Make in India campaign has been also directed to attract the foreign investors to install manufacturing capacity in India. Therefore, make in India campaign is very much dedicated to achieve nation’s branding so that foreign investors can be attracted towards brand India.

Importantly, making of a brand involves the strong realization of identity through the unique specific qualities that are different from what is ‘common’. India today, stands on the verge of attaining a distinguished identity among the countries present on the globe. ‘Make in India’ is a vision that harps upon those capabilities and unique features of Indian-ness. Cheap labor, abundance of resources and minerals are visible not only to the eyes of the corporate units across the world, Indian economy too identifies them and has decided to make them the stepping stones to development. These factors provide the base for the strategic development of the economy. Make in India initiative, invites the investor from the corners of the world to invest in the promising future of this fastest growing economy. In turn, it offers better skilled labor, ease of doing business and availability of resources. This initiative holds employment generation and the inflation management through it. The balance envisioned by the policy makers in the economy is capable of ensuring a fast eradication of poverty and evolution of better economic conditions of all sectors of the nation. The initiative targets unskilled, unorganized sector and plans to transform it into skilled, organized producers with their economic elevation. It conditions both, the bottom-up as well as top-down approaches to ensure complete inclusion of the resources in the process of growth. The paper traces this planning and its probable consequences on the Indian economy (Venkatesan, 2014).

However, many issues concerned to nation’s branding are still far from evident. What is being promoted as brand India and what are the strategies for this promotion? What all are the factors involved in this branding and what could be the probable consequence? This study aims to ascertain the answer of such pertinent questions.

1.2 Research objectives

¬ To investigate the factors that are being promoted among the global community for attracting the global investor and analyze such factors can genuinely contribute towards branding of India as nation

¬ To analyze and determine the effectiveness of ‘make in India campaign’ for national branding

¬ To analyze factors that can pose impediments in India’s branding

1.3 Structure of dissertation

Chapter 1; the introductory chapter of study informs the reader about the key research issues and aims and objectives of research

Chapter 2; chapter draws literature surrounding the issue of nation’s branding and key factors that have implication on nation’s branding

Chapter 3; key methodological considerations including research approach, research strategy, sampling design, method of data collection, method of data analysis and ethical considerations have been presented through this chapter

Chapter 4; presentation and analysis of primary data by adopting qualitative method of data analysis have been undertaken by this chapter

Chapter 5; this chapter presents a valid and meaningful discussion on the entire study.

Chapter 6; this chapter draws opposite conclusion, recommendations and key limitations of research

Chapter 2

Literature review

2.1. Introduction:

The academic focus on ‘nation branding’ has become more penetrative under the deepening influence of globalization. The significance of the image creation has been talked about at length in the literary sphere. Several dimensions of the concept have been analyzed and put forth by the scholars across the globe. Author’s work revolves around the implementation of nation branding strategy on the developing economy of India. The research attempts to understand the incorporation, impact and institutionalization of the recently launched policy of ‘Make in India’ as a nation’s branding tool. India is emerging as the fastest growing economy in the world. It has become important to mark its identity in the eyes of the world. Branding of a nation involves creation and promotion of a particular image for the country to enhance its reputation. Make in India brings into light the unique features of Indian economy into the international marketplace to attract investors from all across the globe. Identification of the promotable sectors and services and then restructuring it to match up the contemporary competition is the key purpose of this campaign. Image creation is then based in the view of these sectors. Sectors like automobiles, aviation, defense manufacturing, electrical machinery, food processing, information technology and business process management, mining, oil and gas, ports and shipping, renewable energy, roads and highways, space and astronomy, textiles and garments, thermal Power, tourism, hospitality and wellness are among the twenty-five sectors identified by Indian economy till now for the ‘Make in India’ policy implementation. Other programs like skill India are also linked with this policy to improve the functioning of the associated factors. India is also working for the improvement in the condition of its ease of doing business within the economic boundaries. Single window clearance systems are being set up for easy startup of domestic business firms and of the international firms in India. Government is strategically intervening to augment the manufacturing processing in the country. It is in this area that the research aims to proceed, looking at ‘make in India’ policy closely to understand its function as nation branding tool. The literature chosen by the researcher here supplements and theoretically justifies the research questions that were to be explored in the process.

2.2. Nation Branding: Concept and its impact

The idea of ‘nation branding’ got its concrete structure as the concept of Nations Brand Index, Anholt’s brainchild. Anholt (2003) engages with the six different aspects of Nation branding- People, Governance, Exports, Investment and immigration, Cultural Heritage and Tourism. There exists a line between the approaches of developing and those of developed countries towards the production of goods and services. Developed economies focus more on marketing and product design whereas developing economies invest more in raw material, labor and other basic aspects of production processes (Anholt, 2003). Government’s regulation and policy of branding can have wider socialist effects on the economy of a country. The welfare quotient can serve as the motivating factor behind the branding and marketing of the image of a country, this separates it from the personal motivation of the few top notch organizations that can monopolize the branding in their own favor. Brand promotion by the governance structure of a developing country can be a strategic step towards development, especially in a democracy. Larger sections of people become the driving force behind the economic progress. The image promotion elevates the overall structure of the economy. It benefits the human resources involved in smaller units of production like those in the handicraft industry to those involved in the larger units of production, government and private enterprises like Reliance and BHEL. The major reason behind the need for nation branding in the contemporary international political context is to bridge the gap between the perception of the country and its reality in the market (Dinnie, 2008). The concept is taken forward by Dinnie (2008) in his analysis of brand promoting strategies of countries like Switzerland and South Africa; he takes into account the opinions of influencing agents like politicians, journalists, manufacturers and students in an economy. The other dimensions of nation branding concept also take into account the relationship it bears with capitalism. The concept that everything is saleable and marketable lies in the heart of capitalism. Nation’s branding can be observed to be on the same line. However, to fix it origin and impact like this would limit the scope of arguments presented in the research. The research paper comprehensively reflects on the impact of nation branding on its economy.

2.3. Significance of nation branding

Anholt argues that branding of developing countries, third world economies can subvert the flow of wealth in the economies of the two worlds. The poor countries can extract the financial up gradation by selling its ‘branded exports’ to the rich countries. The important aspect of branding is that it not only offers economic renovation but it also paves the way for the image renovation of a country, this has much larger and longer impact on its economic growth. As he says “A national brand strategy determines the most realistic, most competitive and most compelling strategic vision for the country, and ensures that this vision is supported, reinforced and enriched by every act of communication between the country and the rest of the world.” (Why brands count, pg. 11, Brand New Justice: the upside of global branding). Nation branding can be used as a tool to influence the competitive spirit of a nation in the international marketplace (Kaneva, 2011). It etches out the national identity in the international marketplace. No part of economy exists in isolation. Every sector is connected to several other sectors. Thus, nation branding has significant impact on sectors other than manufacturing sector as well. It opens up new work opportunities and helps in fetching great investment deals from the international stakeholders. The rise in the level of employment and productivity has imperative impact on the GDP of a country. Generation of a particular ‘image’ establishes the identity of nation through it. Government’s efforts to attain perfection or expertise in the specific domain that elevates the ‘image’ in the international space can further catalyze the process of development in the economy (Dinnie, 2008)

2.4. Make in India: a nation branding tool for India

Anholt (2003) lays great emphasis on the significance of nation branding in the densely interconnected world. His comprehensive works serve as the base for the formation of arguments that support the research objectives in this paper. He has called for the intensification of the need for the products offered by the developing economies among the developed ones. This ‘need’ can be created by promoting the image of the country as the specific producer of the product. The unique feature of branding remains it’s constantly manufactured and marketed ‘need’ among its consumers. These concepts can be closely observed and evaluated in ‘Make in India’ policy by India. The ‘need’ creation for India’s services and products can be observed in Make in India’s focus on the availability of cheap skilled labor, abundance of resource and an enhanced technological support for the investing manufacturers presents the nation as an attractive destination for production. The policy in itself serves as a case study for the basic concept of ‘nation branding’ in the developing countries, the concept evoked by Anholt in his work. The twenty-five sectors of Indian economy that are focused upon under this policy of ‘nation branding’ not only become the sources that offer to uplift the image of ‘brand India’ in the global eyes but have also refined the governance strategies adopted by the political structure of the country. Make in India seeks to create a ‘manufacturing hub’ image of India in the international market. The campaign attempts to lay down the product-origin concept in the promotion process of India’s brand image. It is important to note how ‘place of origin’ of a product plays key role in its establishment as the ‘brand producer’. This is witnessed in the recent promotion of ‘Yoga’ by India. India considers itself as the place of emergence for the practice and tradition of ‘Yoga’. Dinnie (2008) explains this transition of a nation from place of origin to national identity to ‘national brand’. Apart from offering a directive insight into the roots of nation branding and the strategic policy making to promote the same the work also derives self-reflexive arguments about the research methodologies implemented and appropriated by the contemporary research works in this area. Dinnie’s work is thus significantly braided with the author’s research. The research becomes successor of the analytical stands taken by Dinnie here.

2.5. Problems with the nation branding

Fan gropes the symbolical illustration of nation as a brand and the obsession with the creation of stereotypes in the process of branding. The identity has to suffer the loss of flexibility in its spirit and is fixed by the symbols and other tropes. This calls for a careful selection of ‘image’ for banding, as most of the factors depend on this sole image. In the process of creating a distinct identity for itself the nation undergoes the process of stereotyping. The dynamism is lost in this process. This type of image stereotyping has the potential of stunting the magnetic economic makeover that was observed in the initial phase of the image promotion. Indian linkage with the rich cultural heritage on one hand becomes the symbol of representation for the nation and on the other hand limits its representation by restricting its identity to ‘cultural heritage’. This is taken up by the author in the research objectives to glance upon the limitations of ‘Make in India’ as nation branding tool. Perception building, Kaneva argues, becomes the major driving force in the neo-capitalist global scenario. She exposes the drawbacks of this perception building. The nation branding, many a times, becomes a forced process encouraged by the capitalists. Kaneva (2011) brings into the picture the ‘hegemony of global market’ and stresses upon the discriminatory parameters used by several global surveys that determine a country’s worth in terms of economic, social and political conditions. The author has taken up this strand and employed in the research to trace India as a brand name in comparison with other developed economies. The frame of analysis is different for varied types of economic structures in the world. This gives way to an approximation of the impact of this policy on the Indian economy in near future. Kaneva brings out the critical point on the continuum of nation branding’s impact. She observes that this promotion exercises control on the satisfaction and preferences of the promoters. The research draws parallel with the effect on the local perception of consumers as well as producers of this brand and tries to develop its analytical roots for the politics behind this effect.

2.6. Significance of nation branding in Indian context

The identity of a nation is inherently linked to the brand produced within its economic boundaries (Kaneva, 2011). The brand, whether of goods like fizzy drinks or services like those offered by the IT sector, eventually takes up the name of the nation? This process can be strategically used by the manufacturers of these brands to strengthen the position of a country in the international competitive sphere. This can be particularly observed in the Indian context. The developments in the software services have boosted the nation’s identity as one of the leading producers of such services, which has further pushed up the demand in its services, giving rise to the supply, increasing the employment opportunities, standards of living, social wellbeing and overall socio-economic structure. Kaneva too reflects upon the Anholt hexagon and extends its linkages to the other diffusing categories like public relations, international relations and influence of media. India’s image as a production oriented economy shall attract investors from all across the world and enrich its local marketplace. India, as a hotspot for production, shall have its effects on the surrounding economies like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh etc. Enhancement of market has immediate effect on the economic developments. The nation branding for India promises an exploration of its untouched, unknown potential as a strong economy.

2.7. Scope of research and associations with previous research works in this area

The work becomes one of the several parameters upon which the success of the role of policy can be analyzed. The case studies used in the work refines the interpretation of the policy framework and its strategic implementation. The process of evolution of nation as a ‘brand name’ and its necessity to adapt to the global perception has been traced by Dinnie (2008) in his work. The nuanced definitions of the major concepts in this research area have supplemented the author’s understanding and have further boosted the formulations of the questions in the questionnaire used under the research methodology. The engagement of manufacturers, entrepreneurs, corporate units, journalists and policy makers in the ‘Make in India’ campaign, their expectations and perceptions about the topic have been majorly drawn from the questionnaire. This has refined the analysis of their role in the promotion of this campaign as a tool to create the nation’s image as a manufacturing hub. The author explores how this is linked with the overall brand architecture of the country. The parameters of nation’s branding or the categories taken up by the government to highlight India as a brand and reason behind the choice of those parameters is explored in the research work. This finds its roots in Fan’s question of ‘what is being branded?’. The work opens up the possibilities of methodological exploration of ‘Make in India’, diving in to the questions like how the campaign would integrate different, scattered manufacturing units within the country under one large umbrella policy. It will unite all these production units and increase the overall productivity of the country. Fan probes the role of contributors in the nation branding like culture, social institutions, language, history etc. and describes how these are different from the product branding that is constituted by single domain of contributor. The research aims to explore the possibilities of ‘Make in India’ being a multi-dimensional single contributor in India’s branding or its being as coalition of several contributing domains. The research also provides the critique for Fan’s arguments. The work draws its conclusion on a much generalized viewpoint. This generalization is eliminated in this paper, as it delves deep into the specificities with sharper lens of analysis. It takes up the various sectors and then scrutinizes the impact that the policy has had. The research attempts to provide an open ended analytical interpretation. The particular utilization of history and memories is emphasized by Fan. The author focuses upon the disproportionate use of history or distortion of memories to create illusive image for the citizens of India in its ‘Make in India’ policy. Fan’s work provides for the comprehensive technical understanding of the major concepts involved in the nation’s branding. It takes into account the target audiences/receivers of such branding, competitors, influencers and the reasons of branding of nation. This is developed in the specific context of Indian social structure. Is nation branding about ‘manufacturing’ brands or becoming the ‘brand’ in itself? This is constantly evoked by Fan in her work. The author extends a gaze of scrutiny and tries to arrive at a substantial conclusion after research. Her question is taken forth by the author and is attempted for its settlement.

2.8. Conclusion

Modern statecraft is based on the promotion of distinct nature of geographical, political and socio-cultural identity of a nation (Dinnie). Trade, tourism and investment are the major contributors in the determination of a nation’s image in the global backdrop. Also looking at ‘Make in India’ as a nation’s branding tool weaves the opinions, arguments and policies of major governing bodies. The relation between the ‘product’ and its ‘origin’ is significant in the process of nation branding. The literature taken up by the author explores the concept and relevance of ‘nation’s branding’. The nation branding process brings together the various strands of image promoters of a nation. The paper also considers the possibilities of adopting new and innovative ways for the management of national branding in the contemporary state of international relations. The various dimensions of this management especially in the area of media and communications are looked at in Kaneva’s paper. The author links the analysis of this paper to the technological advancements and its renovation under the ‘Make in India’ policy. Kaneva highlights the use of ‘technical-economic’ studies by the nation-brand promoters and policy makers. Author’s research objectives regarding the ‘Make in India’ policy and its impact on the Indian structure is directly substantiated by Kaneva’s arguments. Significantly, the documentation of research in this area itself becomes a part of branding process. It is interesting to note that the research contributes in the image promotion of a specific policy and through it that of the nation where it is being implemented. The paper also tries to understand the difference between the concepts of nation branding and nation’s brand image through Fan’s work in this area. Fan differentiates between the treatment of product-branding and nation branding by the policy makers and stresses upon the implication of such differentiation. The research objective is essentially touched upon by her. ‘What’ element is one of the most important aspects of the research objectives adopted by the author in this particular research? ‘What’ is being promoted as brand India and what are the strategies for this promotion? What all are the factors involved in this branding and what could be the probable consequence? These questions are developed upon the theoretical base provided by these literatures and the arguments are formulated consequently.

Chapter 3

Research methodology

3.1 Introduction

This study investigates that factors that are being promoted through ‘Make in India campaign’ to bolster India’s branding. The selection of appropriate research methodology is vital aspect of this study as it will help in realization of research objectives of this study. Sunder’s onion peel model provides inclusive framework for conducting studies related to business and management discipline. Therefore, this study also selects onion peel model. Major components of a research methodology as provided by Suander’s onion peel model are research philosophy, research approach, research strategies, selection of research method, sampling design, research instruments, and ethical consideration. This section of study deals with these issues related to research methodology (Saunders, Lewis, Thornhill, 2009).

3.2 Research philosophy

A research philosophy describes the philosophical position of a researcher. It is important for the researcher to take right philosophical stand as it can affect both outcome and scope of research. Positivism and Interpretivism research philosophy have been widely used for conducting research. Positivism research philosophy submits that a researcher should carry out the research in scientific manner. This research philosophy advises that a researcher should remain independent of topic and must conduct researcher in context and value free manner. On the other hand, interpretive research philosophy considers that a researcher cannot remain independent of research setting because reality is grounded in research setting and actors. The reality apropos to make in India campaign and its implication on India’s branding is very much grounded in research context and social actors. Therefore, this study considers interpretive research paradigm as apposite research philosophy (Saunders, Lewis, Thornhill, 2009)

3.3 Research approach

A researcher can select befitting research approach from the alternative type of research approach i.e. deductive and inductive research approach. Deductive research approach advocates for deducing hypothesis from theories and testing of hypothesis from observation. Moreover, inductive research approach advocates for development of theory from literature search and subsequent collection and analysis of data. This study adopts inductive research approach as this study is mainly interested in developing understanding how make in India campaign contribute to nation’s branding and nation’s branding is new and emerging concept. There is dearth of dominant other in this area of knowledge.

3.4 Research methods

Alternative research methods such as qualitative and quantitative research methods are available to researcher. This study selects qualitative research method because this research method is effective in thorough examination of research issue. Importantly, this study has adopted interpretive research philosophy and qualitative research method is compatible to interpretive research philosophy (Saunders, Lewis, Thornhill, 2009).

3.4 Research strategy

According to Saunders et al (2009) research strategy is the general plan that allows a researcher to ascertain the answers of research question(s) in most effective manner. However, Bryman (2008) argues that a research strategy helps in setting overall direction for the research. Alternative form of research strategy i.e. survey and case study can be adopted by a researcher. However, selection of research strategy is very much dependent upon the nature of research and the research questions. Survey strategy is important when nature of research necessitates collection of data from large number respondents. However, survey strategy is mainly effective in generating quantitative nature of response in the form of predetermined options provided in survey questionnaire. Therefore, this research strategy incapable of providing thick data and therefore, survey strategy is constrained in terms of developing in depth understanding about a research issues or a phenomenon of interest.

On the other hand, case study strategy is more effective in providing in depth explanation to a research issue. According to Yin (2003) case study as is very effective in undertaking an empirical enquiry apropos to a contemporary phenomenon or topic interest. Importantly, case study examines the research issue in real life context. This research strategy is effective in finding the realities apropos to the research issues when boundaries between phenomenon of interest and research context is not clearly demarcated or evident. Yin (2003) further argued that case study strategy is helpful in compiling evidences needed for the research from multiple sources. Importantly case strategy integrates both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Current study primarily interested in investigating how effectively ‘make in India camping’ contributes to nation’s branding cause. What factors are being promoted through this campaign to promote the cause of India’s branding? It is lucid from the nature research issue that realities associated to this specific research phenomenon is heavily grounded in the research context and actors who constitute research context. Importantly, the research issue investigated by this study requires evidence from the multiple sources as it will contribute in providing in depth explanation about the research issue. The discussion about alternative research strategies have contributed effectively in shaping understanding that case study strategy is compatible to the overall nature and purpose of this research.

3.5 Sampling design

Make in India campaign as India’s new branding tool has vital implications of the existing firms as well as businessman who intend to set manufacturing capacity in India. As a part of ‘Make in India’ initiative, Indian government organized a fair in Mumbai this year in the month of February. This initiative helped in securing investment commitment of US$225.32 billion (IBEF, 2016). More than 5,000 delegates from 60 countries participated in this a week long mega fair. Therefore, make in India campaign has implication upon the domestic as well as foreign firms. Sufficiently large number of manufacturing firms is already operating in Indian economy and many new firms have recently started operating.

Many international firms including Samsung, Xiaomi, LH Aviation, Foxconn, Lenovo, Qualcomm, Blackberry, HTC and Motorola and few domestic firms Micromax have made investment under make India campaign (Yadav, 2016). This study selects case studies and draws total 10 research participants by adopting purpose sampling strategy. Random sampling strategy will not be effective in this study because firms operating in India will be affected by the make in India campaign with varying degree. It is important for this study to select information rich case. Purposive sampling strategy allow in selecting information rich case. Purposive sampling participants having desired knowledge and experience needed for the study can be selected. Therefore, this study selects research participants needed for the study by adopting purposive sampling technique. However, non-probability based sampling method can produce research bias because research participants can be selected out of convenience (Smith, 1983).

Importantly, make in India campaign covers wide spectrum of Indian economy as this ambitious programme is expected to propel of growth of diverse industries related to manufacturing sector of economy. Government has provided boast to manufacturing sector such as electronics, food processing, biotechnology, IT, textile, leather, renewable energy, wellness through Make in Indian campaign. This study draws 10 research participants from as electronics, food processing, renewable energy, biotechnology, and textile industry.

Company selected for the case study includes;

• Niya electronics

• Panacea Biotec

• LT foods

• Trident group [textile]

• Vikram solar pvt ltd.

2 research participants have been drawn from each company selected above as case study.

3.6 Case study

This study adopts multiple firm case study strategy for collecting primary data needed for the research. Total five firms have been selected as case studies for this study. Firms have been drawn from diverse manufacturing sector of Indian economy in order to capture the impact of make in India initiative. Firms for the case studies have been drawn from diverse sectors such as electronics, biotechnology, food processing, textile and solar energy. Nia electronics is operating in home appliance segment of business as company is involved in the manufacturing of electronic home appliances. Panacea Biotech is a leading research based India Biotechnology Company. Moreover, LT food manufactured premium varity of rice and other packaged foods. Trident group is leading home textile manufacturing company. Company is involved in retailing as well as exporting of textile products. Fifth and final company selected for the case study is Vikram Solar.

Response of research participants have been collected by suing semi structured interviewing technique. This technique is extensively used for collecting qualitative nature of primary data. Questions starting with why, who, how and when were posed to research participants. This approach helped in establishing causal relationship with different variables related to make in India campaign (Fridlund, 1997).

Furthermore, research participants were asked to respond upon a questionnaire comprising of a set of 10 questions and each research participants were asked to respond upon same set of questionnaire. This helped in establishing a pattern in the primary data.

3.7 Data analysis

This study has accepted qualitative research approach and qualitative nature of data has been compiled from the interviews of 10 research participants. Therefore, qualitative method of data analysis has been used by the author. Qualitative method of data analysis is complex and diverse. This study uses thematic analysis technique of data analysis because this method allows analyzing qualitative nature of data by converting data in structured form. The task of data analysis under thematic analysis method is completed in four prominent steps;

a) transcribing data; this steps involves transcribing the verbal response of interviewees

b) codification of data; this involves coding interesting feature of data across the data set in systematic manner

c) searching for themes, defining and naming the themes; searching for themes involves identifying key words or phrases that appears in the data set on more frequent basis.

d) Presenting discussion along with the themes; this is the last step and this step involves presenting valid and meaningful discussion along with the themes (Braun, and Clarke, 2006).

3.8 Ethical considerations

This study has duly followed the key ethical considerations of an academic research. There are few areas that invited the ethical considerations. Foremost is collecting data from secondary sources. Author has sincerely filtered all the data from secondary sources and ensured that only data from authentic and trustworthy sources shall find place in this research. In addition, some imperative ethical considerations were also posed while collecting primary data from research participants. Few research participants were hesitant to offer their opinion on the subject because they did not want their name to be disclosed. Author assured them that this research will duly protect the confidentiality aspect of research and their participation in this research will not be disclosed to outsider. In addition, this research has taken adequate measures so that research processes many not harm the interest of any individual. Finally, this research has also adhered to informed consent and voluntary participation approach for securing the participation of interviewees. Author informed about the nature, purpose and scope of research to research participant’s prior of their participation in this research.

3.9 Limitations of research

There are few inherent limitations of this research which has mainly crept into the research process because of adherence to particular methodology. This research is entirely reliant upon qualitative research method. This research gain highly subjects traits mainly because of adherence with the qualitative research method and this can be accepted as imperative limitation of this study. In addition, manufacturing sector of India is really vast and diverse but this study draws 10 research participant mainly from five sectors i.e. electronics, food processing, renewable energy, biotechnology, and textile industry. Therefore, limited participation of research participants can be also taken is vital limitation of this research.

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