The literature review is an important segment that provides focus on various concepts in regards to the dissertation topic. The segment of literature review will be carried out depending upon reviewing various literature and academic articles related to packaging characteristics and consumer buying behavior. It will focus on Packaging characteristics, consumer buying behavior, Fast moving consumer good and industry. These literatures will help in understanding importance of packaging and how it affects consumer buying behaviour.
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.3 Packaging and its characteristics
Kotler defines packaging as “all the activities of designing and producing the container for a product.” And the package includes the primary container, like the tube of toothpaste and the bottle of perfume; the secondary package is thrown away when the product is used, like wrapping paper; and the shipping package (Pathak, 2014)
Packaging plays many roles such as physical protection to the object which is enclosed in the package from any damage, barrier protection, information transmission of how to use the product and so on (Dobsan et al, 2012).
The objectives of packaging are
‘ Physical Protection- Safety of the product enclosed in the package from damage such as temperature, shock, vibration, compression, etc. If there will be no physical protection then the product can get harmed or destroyed which customer may avoid buying, considering this it is important to have physical protection.
‘ Barrier protection- protection from oxygen, water vapor, dust etc. barriers leads to freshness in a product. It shows the high-quality product among customers.
‘ Reducing theft- Putting anti-theft devices in the packaging and designing the packaging in a way that once it is opened cannot be reclosed can be helpful in the prevention of theft. Example:- Big bazaars in India have the tracking device as a code bar, which scans the code and reduces the theft.
‘ Convenience- features which add conveniences in the sale, opening, reclosing, use, re-use distribution, handling, and display. Package design which fits the consumer convenience.
‘ Marketing- Marketers can use the labels and packaging to encourage and attract potential buyers to buy products. Which means marketers can make the product attractive as per segmenting the market into age and gender segments (Ogechukwu, 2010)
Packaging generally signifies the external identity of the product. The study deals with all the elements of packaging like pack graphics, pack shape, pack size, and pack materials which the consumer can identify and well notice. They are also categories as characteristics of packaging Holmes and Paswan (2012) believe that consumers want to know more about what the product contains inside through evaluating the packaging of the product. So, it has an essential role in product performance because the package tells the consumer the information about the product as well. The information can be expressed in following ways in the form of characteristics of packaging(Parmar, et al. 2012)..
‘ Visual elements-Visual element available on product plays an important role to gain and lose consumers. It is very important for manufacturers to consider that the visualization of the product is and how the appearance looks like.
‘ Background- It defines the product originality and it comes with the color combination through which consumer gets the message.
Quality- The quality defines the reliability of consumers on the product. It is very important to have a good quality of product to maintain high sale volume and the image of brand or product.
According to Gopal (2014), The innovative element in the package is necessary to assure customers about the quality of products, to ensure that the customer is influenced to collect a particular product compared to the competitor’s product. According to white, (n.d) When choosing between several products, especially when the consumer is more involved in the selection process, often buy the most expensive quality product because the higher price means higher quality is chosen. The same is true of packaging material, high-quality packaging and labels influence the consumer to buy more often than packaging and labels of low quality.
‘ Packaging Material- Material is something which is used to protect packaging. There can be a high-quality or low-quality product which may gain or lose consumers.
‘ Innovation- This is the technology which adds value to the product in case if it fulfills the needs of the market. The manufacturers have to make these key equity products to stand out of the market with the unique selling point. The manufacturer can gain more consumers by this concept of innovation which will reflect relation in between consumer buying behavior and innovation of packaging.
‘ Packaging Color- color sets the mindset of certain potential customers during decision process and can also capture the attention of consumers. Also, India (New Delhi) is the multicultural place where every background has different meaning of culture.
‘ Labelling ‘which convey social health targets, agriculture issues, manufacturing industries and much more. With the labeling the consumer’s preferences differ, it provides clear information, product safety surety (Parmar, et al. 2012)
The importance of packaging characteristics as a vehicle for communication and the brand is growing in competitive markets for large consumer packaged products. This research used a questionnaire methodology to understand the behavior of consumers towards these products packaging. The challenge for researcher was to integrate packaging into an effective model buying decision, by understanding consumer behavior to the packaging of consumer products. The packages also offer brand identification and label information such as operating instructions, contents, and the list of ingredients or raw materials, warnings for use and guidelines for care product.(Gangar,2015)
Kuvykaite (2009) defines packaging as a crucial element in today’s market through which consumers’ buying behavior has been influenced. The impact of a package and its elements on consumers’ buying decision can be revealed by analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumers’ choices.
Packing promotion strategies of consumer goods, respondents have considered four factors and the order of importance is the following – an attractive packaging (explained the variance of 18.051%), value for money (13,083%), eco-friendly packaging (12,965 %) and convenience (11.024%). male and female respondents perceive various factors in the same way while taking into about the impact of packaging strategies in promoting consumer goods. ( Main observations, deficiencies, and recommendations, n.d)
2.3.1 Types of milk and milk food packaging and its requirement:
Milk has been packaged in various types of containers worldwide( Tetra, Plastic, glass etc). The general requirements for a milk container packaging are:
o It must be tamper-proof so that it is protected against fraudulent practices between the time of packaging and consumption.
o It must be of a size such that the capacity always refers to the keeping quality of the product and its contents correspond to the daily needs of the consumer.
o Must be clean and attractive.
A container of good quality should avoid post-processing of bacterial contamination sources. It must be such that it should avoid any direct or indirect chemical change in the milk. The package must be of such materials that their components are not transmitted to milk them. It should also be resistant to cleaning materials used in the dairy. It can be used once (single use) or may be returned to the factory processing for reuse.
There are several types of packaging based on use:-
‘ Single-use Packaging Materials:-
These are also classified as flexible packaging. They, as the name suggests, are used to package milk once and are discarded after removing the product.
Plastic pouches: Flexible plastic material can be made into pouch packs. As they are not self-supporting, they generally need some secondary packaging. The advantages offered by the plastic packages are: good barrier properties, visibility of contents, lightweight (reducing the cost of transportation), a single service, eliminating the need for change, washing and sanitation, easy to load, economic and Can you make it more attractive?’
‘ Multiple-use Packaging Materials
Multiple-use Packaging Materials of the possible types of packaging, bottles are used as multiple use packages. They can be made of glass and plastic.
Glass: Glass containers are in the form of bottles, cans, jars and cups. They can be smooth and transparent or colored and dense.
Advantages of glass are- strong material, good closure and decorative options, Raw materials readily available, possible Recycling, Excellent gas barrier properties and water, Image quality, Product compatibility, Good resistance to internal pressure and Reuse opportunity.
‘ Materials used for bulk supply
Milk is packed with bulk and institutional supplies in cans made of stainless steel or aluminum and the capacity of 20 L or 40 L. These are robust and offer excellent product protection (Packaging Materials Used for Fluid Milk, 2015)
2.4 Fast moving consumer goods and milk products.
Fast Moving Consumer goods (FMCG) also known as consumer packaged goods (CPG) are the regularly consumed products that are ended quickly in the market. The FMCG categories include cosmetics, packaged food products, dairy products, pharmaceuticals, consumer electronics household products, drinks and others. The FMCG mainly involves in production, distribution, and marketing operations of consumer packaged goods. The recent studies FMCG sales are increasing rapidly worldwide. It carries low unit value, consumer buying behavior less loyal towards one product and requirement of frequent buying. FMCG is a major sector involvement in India’s GDP as 4th largest sector in Indian economy.(Srinivasu, 2014)
FMCG concept has contributed largely to the development of India through ‘tax deduction on various items, rise in penetration level and per capita consumption ‘the 2015 statistics states that the FMCG sector reaches USD 33.4million (approx.) market in India (Nagrajan and Sheriff, 2013)
FMCG industry tries to build the trust and loyalty factor relationship with their customers through providing a good quality product or new packaging. The flow of products depends on the customer demand which is also affected by its competitors in the market (Telegraph, 2015). In India, the FMCG concept is booming very rapidly in urban and semi-urban regions (Nagrajan and Sheriff, 2013)
FMCG industry includes many daily products but this paper will be focusing on milk products and its packaging. Nowadays competitive advantages have made the milk processing a tough business despite the fact that milk has high numbers of customers in the market. (Thanin and Bradley, 2014).
Skuras Dimitris (2005) The purpose of this work is to examine the range of information consumers seek on labels of quality products and construct an indicative checklist of various types of informational packaging as well as to examine whether a quality of information demanded segregates the market-creating segments to be targeted by firms. The study records the range of informational packaging sought by consumers as well as critical factors influencing their consuming behavior. Informational packaging linking the product to place ranks top among a wide set of information sought on labels. A Poisson count data model reveals that consumers’ willingness to acquire information from labels is influenced by various socio-economic characteristics and, in general, high demand for information is associated with higher expenditures for wine.
Singla Manisha (2010) Nutritional packaging of food products is not mandatory in India at present and the Indian Government is on the verge of introducing a code of conduct for it. The aim of this paper is to provide some initial guidelines for the above-said purpose so as to have consumer friendly packaging policies. Food labels are read by the consumers for brand comparisons and not for consulting nutritional information. Difficult terminology, small font size and inability to understand nutritional labels are the major problems encountered by the consumers. Television, friends, magazines are commonly used for assessing nutritional information. Labels are considered more consumers friendly when benchmarks regarding serving size are provided. Income level, the size of household, the number of children and age did not play a role in the usage of nutritional labels by the consumers. Consumers with special dietary needs used nutritional labels regularly.
2.5 Packaging of Fast moving consumers goods in milk food industry
In order to attain the communication goals effectively and to maximize the potential of packaging, fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) manufacturers must understand the consumers’ response to their packages, and integrate the perceptual processes of the consumer into a design (Nancarrow et al., 1998).
The package constructs its own image by underlining the uniqueness and originality of the product. Product selection depends on quality judgments of consumers which affect the characteristics of packaging. If the packaging quality is high then consumers think that the product quality is also high. On the other hand, if packaging quality is low, consumers have the perception that the product quality is of inferior type (Underwood et al., 2001; Silayoi and Speece, 2004). The package becomes the symbol that communicates favorable or unfavorable implied meaning about the product, so packaging itself reflects the quality of the product (Underwood et al., 2001). The spontaneous imagination of the consumers about the characteristics of the products, like looks, tastes, feels, smells, or sounds are created while viewing product pictures on the package (Silayoi and Speece, 2005). In the FMCG industry, packaging and packaging design have become a vital factor in marketing consumer goods, playing a key role in communicating a product which benefits the consumer. Consumers generally don’t invest much time while purchasing FMCG products which reflects in a low buying decision, and this has been observed in a largely self-service environment like a supermarket. (Kotler, 2010)
2.6 Consumer buying behavior
According to white (n.d) Consumer buying behavior is a decision-making
process including actions where consumer buys the product and use as per the needs. There is a mental and social process involved while customer buys the product than simply entering the store and picking one product which reflects the actual cycle of buying behavior. There are 4 types of consumer buying behavior ‘Limited decision making, routine response behavior, extensive decision making and impulse buying. Kotler et al. (2011) point out that understanding how the consumer chooses products and consumers can provide manufacturers with a competitive advantage over its competitors. Companies can use this information strategically to offer the right products and services at the right time to the right audience.
According to Jeddi et al., (2013) consumer behavior is a means to reach consumers and fulfill their needs and demands successfully. Behavior is a tool that derives from consumer needs and wants to reach the set of goals or target consumers. The consumer market, is vast and so their demands. In the big market every consumer has different desires and wants, so the manufacturer should think what target customer he wants for his product or where he should introduce his product in order to make profits and growth. Consumer behavior is a process which includes the selection of product, buying and consumption of product and services that could be before buying, on buying and after buying of product. Consumer buying behavior can be influenced by many external factors such as culture, social, political environment, packaging and many more. In the present study the focus lays only on packaging attributes.
According to Rani (2014) consumer buying behavior means the ultimate consumer buying behavior, it includes the process of selection, buying and goods consumption and services that can fill their needs and wants.
Consumer buying decision:- The types of consumer buying behavior are achieved by the level of participation in the buying decision, which is directly influenced by the level of need and intensity of interest in a particular product. High share buy more expensive items include lcars, goods, high prices, goods and products that are highly visible to others. Consumers are also more involved in procurement involving higher risk, whether it is a personal, social or economic risk. (White, n.d)
It is very important to understand for the marketer what consumers need, in order to be more communicable, and gaining customers for long. But now the new facts are in the market about consumer buying process which was not shown by the previous researcher.
According to Jaideep (2015) Step1: Need Recognition- marketer need to understand the decision process. A buying decision only takes place when the recognition of need is identified. In the questionnaire it will also be tested that how consumer identify the product (example, information, size etc.)
Step 2: Search for Information- the consumer seek for the valuable information to identify and evaluate information sources related to central buying decision. The consumer can follow the product through internet, media or word of mouth. This step of information in questionnaire will show what is the important information consumer look for in a product. (example- manufacturing date, expiry date, ingredients etc.)
Step 3: Evaluation of alternatives: It involves the establishment of criteria with which to evaluate each alternative before making a decision. The consumer has collected information about certain brands. Now, it is subjected to the evaluation of the brands. He/she cannot buy all of them. Usually the best is selected, the brand that offers maximum satisfaction. There are several criteria that normally that offers satisfaction: The criteria that consumers use come from, Past experience and feelings about various brands and Opinions of family members and friends (Patil, 2016)
Step 4: Product Evaluation (under which packaging comes)- this is the stage where the consumer evaluate product on the basis of alternative product packaging those which have all the capability that fits in the need and requirement of the consumer. Here consumer buying behavior is heavily affected (can be positive buying behavior or negative buying behavior).,
Step 5: Buying decision- according to Kotler (2009) final buying decision depends on two polls- negative and positive feedback from other existing consumers. Which affects the buying decision of current consumer, Step 5: Post buying- Is when the buying decision is already made and the post thinking takes place for instance whether the decision of buying product was good or not, whether you should have waited to get a better price, updated one. This can be problem for seller because consumer might return the product, never buy from same place or give negative feedback about the product to people. Here the salesperson have to look after the consumer and their decision as in to motivate and appreciate for their buying decision. These are the steps which are really important to keep a track of these activities of consumer in order to maintain place in market and remain in competition for marketers. (Saylor, n.d).
H1: There is significant relationship between consumer buying behaviour and visual elements of package in the market of FMCG (milk products) in India.
When a consumer buys something from the market place or online, the first interaction with the product is the packaging. The consumer decides what product to buy after getting the message from the contents and visual images on the product.
H2: There is a relationship between buying behaviour and background (culture) of packaging of FMCG milk products) in India.
The relationship between the buying behaviour of consumer goods and product packaging has an important role to play in positioning products. Product design shapes consumer perceptions and may be the determining factor in decisions about buying that characterize most of the time of buying.
H3: There is a relationship between buying behaviour and quality of packaging of FMCG milk products) in India.
The relation between buying behaviour and quality of packaging, packaging is crucial because it is the first thing the consumer sees before making the final buying decision.
H4: There is a relationship between buying behaviour and material of packaging of FMCG milk products) in India.
material of packaging of FMCG milk products) in India.
Good packaging helps to identify the product to consumers. The packaging is used for ease of delivery and security purpose. Producer use the packaging for consumer satisfaction that the product is genuine it means that the product is new. Also they used for promotional purposes and to differentiate the product from other brand. Rundh said in 2005 that the perception of good packaging capture consumers about specific products.
Packaging is the important element and container which protects the product. Packaging materials are paper / cardboard, plastic, glass, steel, aluminum.
H5: There is a relationship between buying behaviour and information of packaging of FMCG milk products) in India
The relation between buying behaviour and information of packaging to described that the product is is genuine it means that the product is new.
H6: There is a relationship between buying behaviour and innovation of packaging of FMCG milk products) in India.
Innovation of packaging of FMCG milk product depends on many elements that has been selected packaging color, design, written information, packaging material, design of wrapper and background image.
H7: There is a relationship between buying behaviour and colour of packaging of FMCG milk products) in India.
The color of the packaging is important and also to differentiate a product from another company. Packaging color draw consumers’ attention towards color the more the color attractive the more consumers will like it. Unlike competitor use different color like white, black for power, blue for confidence, red for power, green for balance, orange, yellow, purple that have a different meaning as perceived by consumers.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
In research methodology chapter research is seen as an effort to get to the answer to the intellectual and practical problems through the application of technical methods to the knowable universe. Research is a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a specific topic. It is a research to find solutions to scientific and social problems through an objective and systematic analysis. Here knowledge means, a discovery of hidden truths.
3.2 Research paradigm
Gephardt (1999) classifies Paradigms as an understanding of the phenomenon and how to achieve knowledge in relation to that. Research paradigms can be classified in three different categories such as positivist, post-positivist and interpretivist positions. This threefold classification is considered ideal for this study because these three categories can be used to conveniently place the most specific psychological and sociological theories used in this project.
According to Qi (2012), The positivist paradigm explores the detailed and descriptive analysis of the research information. Positivist focus on detain description and observation of objectives to analyze links between social variables through hypothesis and research questions( Grix. 2010). According to Nguyen, (2014), Interpretivist paradigm approach emphasizes on an interactive phenomenon. It focuses on representative, subjective experience, and the thoughts that develop in the person’s mind which mean individual develop their self-assumptions base on individual unique experience and shared cultural experiences. Hence, there is no exact right or wrong answer. The Post-Positivist paradigm relates with both the aspects Positivist and Interpretivist in which post-positivists interpretively try to understand the social world. It is an ontological approach to understanding the relationship among Phenomena more than observation (Grix, 2010).
3.2.1 Paradigm application for this research
This research has chosen the positivism paradigm approach to complete the research. The positivism approach will help to develop the relationship between business phenomena for explanation and relations among phenomenon. This approach will provide intensive study of the findings and consideration of information available. The data is collected on the basis of hypothesis and research objectives. According to Bryman et al, (2007) The positivism approaches the quantitative method which fill fit in this research as this research will be using quantitative approach and this will be done by using the instruments that are independent for a researcher and the hypothesis testing. Quantitative deductive method Positivism. In this research the quantitative approach will be using deductive method. Therefore deductive method is related to the positivism and provides help to analyze the hypothesis.
3.3 Structural Equation Modelling (SEM)
According to McArdle (1984), Structural equation modelling provides a very common and suitable for statistical analysis framework that includes several traditional multivariate methods, eg factor analysis, regression analysis, and discriminant analysis, as unique cases. Using the Structural equation model in this research helped in visualizing data through a graphical path diagram. There are different analysis to test SEM such as regression analysis which will be used in this research to show the relation between latent variables and observed variables.
3.3.1 Indices of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM)
According to Schumacker, et al (2010) one of the output index of SEM is Chi square. This will be use to ‘observed and implied variance-covariance matrices’. This is use to make a model fit equation.
3.4 ANOVA :
Oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used in this research to compare several means. This method is often used in scientific or medical experiments when treatments, processes, materials or products are being compared. Additionally, ANOVA is used to compare two variables while one variable is continuous and other variable is categorical. In our analysis, monthly income and how much quantity a consumer buys milk products are continuous variables and others are categorical variables as they are on five point Likert scale basis. Thus one way ANOVA analysis helps to break the data into groups and observe whether there is any relationship between the variables.
3.5 Cross-tabulation analysis
According to Michael (n.d) Cross-tabulation analysis, also known as contingency table analysis, is most often used to analyze categorically (nominal measurement scale) data. A cross-tabulation is a two (or more) dimensional table that records the number (frequency) of respondents that have the specific characteristics described in the cells of the table. In this research, Cross-tabulation tables provide a wealth of information about the relationship between the variables. In the present case, the result of both age and gender is portrayed through cross tabulation analysis. As both the gender and age are categorical variables, cross tabulation helped to present the relationship of these variables together. On the other hand, the cross tabulation analysis between gender and monthly income helps to show that most of the male shoppers have a monthly income between Rs 16000-4000 while most of the female shoppers have less than Rs15000 salary per month.
3.6 Research Approach
To find the relationship between research and theory there are two methodological approaches, deductive approach, and inductive approach. According to Bryman (2015), Deductive approach tests the validity of hypotheses or theories. Deductive approach develops links from methods to structure, forming patterns and comparative methods to assess the applicability of patterns across cultures (Schadewitz. Et al, 2007). while inductive approach contributes to the development of new theories and generalizations(Bryman, 2015).
The research has chosen the approach of the deductive method, to process the existing theories and knowledge which will be used to elaborate certain phenomena. Following the theoretical framework, the study expects to find out reasonable factors to find out the relationship between packaging characteristics of fast moving Consumer Goods and consumer’s buying behavior focusing on milk product. The research hypothesis will be tested using questionnaire and drawn the conclusion using 119 questionnaires. This approach will also test the validity of hypotheses or theories to draw a conclusion.
3.7 Research Designs
Research is seen as an effort to get to the answer to the intellectual and practical problems through the application of technical methods to the knowable universe. It can be considered as the actualization of logic in the set of events that enhances the validity of data for given research problem. According to Mouton (1996), Research design helps to ‘plan, structure and execute the research to maximize the validity of findings’. It guides to reach research design and data collection through the process of philosophical assumptions.
Rajasekar, et al. (2013) Research design are comprised of the exploratory, explanatory and descriptive manner .According to Creswell (2014), Exploratory research is an investigation of a problem that has not been clearly defined. It frequently occurs before we identify enough to make conceptual distinctions or postulate an explanatory relationship. Whereas, Descriptive and explanatory research are used to describe the characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. These approaches show the opportunity for proper explanation and analyzing the data (Research methodology, n.d).According to Aaker et al, (2003) The descriptive is done through a statistical instrument such as charts and frequency. The main factors of this instruments are the central tendency of variables and dispersion .Mean mode and median are used to measure the central tendency of variables (Bryman, et al. 2007).
This research is aligned with descriptive and explanatory purposes. Descriptive research will describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon of study. This helped to analyze the hypothesis in depth and further shows the development of the proper results.
3.8 Research questions (Hypothesis)
The research question is the methodological starting point of academic research in both the natural and social sciences. The research will answer the question posed by researchers.
In this study, 37 questions were asked on GoogleDocs and 119 user filled the questions out of 150. Some of the respondents answered all the questions and some of them were partially filled.
3.8 Design Experiments
The design of Experiments is an organized method to find out the relationship between factors affecting a process and the output of that method. In other words, it is used to find the cause and effect. This information is compulsory to handle the process inputs in order to optimize output.
In this study, Design experiments have been used to collect data from the user via questionnaire.
3.9 Research Data Collection
Every research is dependent on the proper process of data collection and correct selection of an approach to collect the data from various sources. For this segment, the researcher has concerned on the understanding of primary research. Further, Primary research has 2 approaches quantitative and qualitative.
This research design is a quantitative form of a questionnaire to collect data like demographic information, quality of milk product, the place to buying and packaging quality by which user motivates to buy the product. As per the previous researchers suggested that Quantitative is the perfect approach for collection of data and data analyzing.
3.10 Data Analyses
The SPSS 19 software has been used to analyze the data by considering the hypothesis and objectives of the research
3.11 Drawn conclusion
The conclusion has been drawn on the basis of collected data and draw SPSS to maximize the output.
3.12 Sampling Method
According to Bryman, et al. (2010) Sampling method is a process where the researchers participate in interaction with group of people who have the knowledge or deep understand of the research topic and gather their opinions and ideas and use the topic to contact with others. Furthermore, Sampling helps the researchers to develop the suitable conclusion of the study. It is a process which includes interviewing people on call, face to face and distributing questionnaire through email, social media or paper distribution to collect data. According to King (2012), data can be collected using probability sampling and non-probability sampling.
3.13 Validity and Reliability of measurements
Traditional criteria of validity are rooted in a positivist tradition, and to some extent, positivism has been defined by a systematic theory of validity. Within the positivist terminology, validity lived among, and was the result and culmination of other empirical conceptions universal laws, evidence, objectivity, truth, reality, deduction, reason, facts and mathematical data to name only a few (Winter, 2000).
Joppe (2000) defines reliability as The degree to which the results are constant over time and an accurate representation of the total population under study is known as reliability and if the results of a study can be reproduced under a similar methodology then the instrument investigation is believed to be reliable. According to Cooper and Schindler ((2008), it is important to show the consistency of measurement of the various instrument. Cronbach Alpha is used in this research to measure the internal reliability and validity. If the Cronbach’s alpha is greater than 0.7 then the instrument used to obtained the data is appropriate
In this research validity and reliability is achieved through respondent opinion regarding the questions. Multiple choice question were posted on GoogleDocs using five Likert scale (1) strongly disagree (2), disagree (3), neutral (4), agree (5) and strongly agree., Likert scale is a psychometric scale response mainly used in questionnaires to obtain preferences or grade according to a participant or a set of statements. Likert scales is a non-comparative scaling technique and are one-dimensional in nature. They are asked respondents to indicate their level of agreement with a given way of an ordinal scale statement (DeVellis, 2003).
The validity test in this research is applied to measure, what indicators are supposed to measure. According to Bryman et al. (2007) There are several instruments to measure the external validity but according to this type of research, the best suitable one was faced measure out of (face, construct, concurrent and predictive. ) This measure helped in measuring the objectives and hypothesis, and the requirement of the study. During data collection period the data was obtained through online survey and face to face communication and coded by numbers for the analysis process.
Each person in the universe has the same chance of being chosen for the sample and each collection of the same size has the same chance of becoming the actual sample.
The probability sampling provides an advantage due to the ability of researchers to calculate the specific bias and error in regard to the data collected. Probability sampling is defined as the “distinctive features that each unit in the population has a known, non-zero probability of being included in the sample” (Henry 25).
Simple Random Sampling =sampling without replacement.
The benefit of non-probability sampling is that it a suitable method for researchers to collect a sample with small or no price and or for those research studies that do not require representativeness of the population (Babbie 1997).
3.14 Sample Size
The sample size is one of the factors of research design that researchers need to judge as the plan of research. Reasons are to exactly calculate the required sample size which includes achieving both a clinically and statistically important result and it is ensuring that research resources are used efficiently and ethically. Participants approval for participation on the basis that it has the potential to lead to a better understanding of the concept used, however, if an investigation does not include sufficient sample size to answer the question that is being studied in a valid manner than participants who enrolling may be unethical.
This research has used purposive sampling technique which is a part of the non-probability technique and random sampling method for a survey. This has been kept in mind that all the investigations and respondents are the true representative of the study population. In this, the validity issue was dependent on measure instrument , analyzing techniques and data collection..
Parahoo (1997) defined population as “the total number of units which can collect data”, such as people, objects, events or organizations. Burns (2003) describe the population as all items that meet the criteria for inclusion in the study.
In this study, Information was gathered from 119 participants out of 150 samples distributed. Which means 79.33% out of 100% people replied to the distributed questionnaire. This research has been investigated in India (New Delhi) thus the population were completely aware of the Indian packaging market. This research only examines sample size considerations in quantitative research. In this research, the respondent age is no less than 18 years and the respondent is students, service man, self-employed, businessman and others profession. It was asked whether they buy packed milk products or not. Then only those who buy it filled the questionnaire. For collecting data through a face-to-face and online survey the purposive techniques was used. There were also some limitations to collect the survey such as time consumptions, money etc, due to the large geographical area. To overcome these limitations the questionnaires were distributed via social media which saved time and money and also face to face questioners were collected as much as possible.
3.15 Data collection
According to Parahoo (1997), a research instrument is “a tool used to collect data. An instrument designed to measure the knowledge skills and attitude.”. For every research, the data has been collected , and every research approaches different data collection method. Researchers collect the data during the focus group discussion. Obtaining data from participants with different experiences avoid information bias and thus increase credibility with respect to information. The study approach for 2 type of data collection method, first is primary research which can be divided into qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis and the second is Secondary research.
3.15.1 Primary Research
According to Driscoll (2011), primary research approach depends on data collection through primary resource. This research is based on principles of scientific methods, which was developed in the nineteenth century first by John Stuart mill. His theory of primary research suggested about the new continuous learnings of the biosphere and observable phenomena. Moreover, it is also said that application of these scientific methods varies from research field to field through which this study implement different methods, develop a questionnaire or hypothesis and collecting data, objectives, and human measurable and observable. Primary research helps to collect data for new learnings and eliminates one’s own biases process . Further, Primary Research strategies can be done using quantitative and qualitative data
3.15.2 Secondary Research
In the secondary research, the data collection method is done by secondary resources such as books, journals or articles which are already published and the researchers select the literature review description from there. The researchers follow the same methods and models applied in the books or journals.
Justification to research methods
In this study, primary data collection method has opted through questionnaire and face-to-face. In this research, it was required to measure the consumer’s attitude and market behavior. To measure these categories the studies recommend to make a structured questionnaire . Primary research method also helped to obtain huge information/ data about the influence of FMCG packaging attributes on consumer buying behavior focusing on milk products . The consumers in this study helped to provide numerical data with new insights. Here the new insights mean in the questionnaire there was 1 open question which provided a platform for respondents to answer about what problems they are currently facing with the packaging and what can be improved. The respondent provided their valuable answer with new insight which can be beneficial for the Indian packaging market.The Primary approach allows more flexibility in providing answers; therefore, the users were able to provide depth information on the phenomenon. The study also revealed the impact of information on packaging, visual elements, Background, Quality, Material, innovation, Color, and Labeling.
Adopting the quantitative data method, the data have been collected with the help of questionnaire feedback by using both platforms online survey and face to face contact. This guides the research participants to provide an accurate answer to the topic and allow them to plan timely, appropriate, and coordinated emergency response.
3.15.3 Quantitative research
According to Bernard (2000), a Quantitative method is a study which helps to analyze characteristics of a population on the foundation of large sample size, in the form of questions and survey (Kothari, 2004). Quantitative data is collected by the human respondents in a numeric structure. The process helped develop graph, relations with variables and tables to support the data analysis techniques and conclusions.
3.15.4 Qualitative research
According to Kothari (2004), Qualitative research is based on behavioral sciences where the main objective is to ‘discover the underlying motives of human behavior’. With the help of this research, it can be analyzed what factors motivates people to act in a certain manner and about their likes and dislikes in a certain situation. This can be conducted through the telephonic interview where time in the main concern.
3.15.5 Measures and Variables
“Variable” is a term frequently used in research projects. It is important to define and identify variables, while the design of quantitative research projects.
In this study researcher used three types of variable such as dependent variable (Buying behavior of consumer which get influenced by packaging characteristics), independent variable (packaging characteristics such as visual elements, quality of packaging, labelling, innovation, material and so on) and mediator variable (test the best quality of product) to identify quality of packaging, price of product, interest towards milk product and place of buying the product
3.17 Ethical Consideration
Ethical considerations in research are dangerous. Ethics is the rule of conduct that distinguishes between right and wrong. They help to determine the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behavior by the researcher. Integrity, reliability, and validity of research results are based largely on adherence to ethical principles. Readers and the public want to be sure that the researchers followed the appropriate guidelines for issues such as human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, conflicts of interests, safety, health standards and so successively. The management of these ethical issues of great impact on the integrity of the research project and can affect whether or not the project is funded.
In quantitative research, ethical standards prevent against things such as fabrication or falsification of data and, therefore, promote the pursuit of knowledge and truth which is the main objective of the research. It is very important to protect research respondent to follow the guiding foundation of ‘do not harm’. (Aaker et al., 2003)
For conducting this survey, an official, and authorized letter was provided by saxion university of applied science. In the online and paper questionnaires, the name of the institute, researcher details, aim and purpose of research, level of the thesis were clearly defined. It was pleased to all the respondents that if they have few minutes to fill this survey which will not take more than 15 minutes to fill in. Additionally, I have used SPSS 19 to analyze data.