Essay: Co-variation among diverse behaviors can be adequately modeled by a single higher order factor.

Explain the topic of the study. In other words explain what theory or idea the researchers were investigating. Include past research and theory if applicable
In this article, the researchers were attempting to analyze the issue of personality and the predisposition factors of an individual to engage in risky or problematic behaviors during the period of adolescent. The researchers argue that risky or problematic behaviors during adolescent period typically encompass a range of different behaviors such as substance use, risky sexual behavior, low achievement in education, delinquent or conduct disorder behavior and many others. According to most theoretical accounts, as they put it, all risk behaviors include a trade-off experience between short-term gains and potential long-term costs as argued by Baumeister and Scher (1998).
In paragraph form briefly summarize the article. Include the hypothesis, methods. Include which experimental design it was. For example was it a factorial design (e.g. 2 x 3)? Was it a between groups design or was it a repeated measures design
The article argues that a diverse set of precarious or problematic behaviors are related. This implies that the patterns of co-variation can be significantly demonstrated by a single higher order factor. It also implies that with that action, it permits the direct estimation of the contributions of theoretically credible causes of a common tendency in regards to risk taking. In the study, the researchers applied this approach for the importance of testing the contributions of specific personality variables to this common tendency towards risk taking. Due to the consideration of significance common attributes that were shared by the diverse risk behaviors, the researchers had a good starting point of their research for the identification of aspects of personality that might underlie a generalized tendency in engaging in precarious or problematical behaviors.
The researchers took longitudinal data from a representative sample of 1978 individuals both mixed black and white adolescents. Estimation of the higher order factor model, as well as the hypothesis test concerning both common and unique impacts of personality on involvement in multiple risk behaviors were conducted in the subset of 1978 adolescents. The researchers used this subset as opposed to the smaller subset if respondents available for longitudinal analyses for the reason that the larger, more representative sample provides the most powerful test of the cross-sectional hypotheses as well as the least-biased estimates of the population impacts. The significance of this study was to study the role of personality in multiple risk or problematic behaviors.

What were the results of the study? Was the hypothesis confirmed?
The results of the study illustrated that co-variation among diverse behaviors, that is, scholastic underachievement, felonious behavior, substance use, and sexual behavior, can be adequately modeled by a single higher order factor. It indicates that impulsivity and avoidance coping are general risk factors for involvement the above behaviors. While, none of the examined personality variables that demonstrated the change in problem behaviors once implemented, avoidance coping prospectively predicted involvement among a sub-group of adolescents with little or no prior involvement. The outcomes of the study also suggested that dysfunctional styles regulating emotions as well as emotionally motivated behaviors are primary reasons of risky or problematic behaviors throughout adolescence.
In order to conclude the study, the researchers argued that the higher order factor model provided a highly parsimonious explanation for the co-variation among problem behaviors. They also argued that the study accounts for a larger proportion of their co-variations as well as substantial portions of the variability in problem behaviors. The study suggests that the analytic approach holds much promise, and also that such models provide significant explanatory frameworks for continuing efforts for the significance of understanding the etiology of problem behaviors despite their being limitations within the study.

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