As a counselor, one must become familiar with the science of Statistics as a method for communicating information obtained from a study. Statistics involves the process of collecting, organizing, analyzing, summarizing and interpreting numerical data (‘Statistics,’ n.d.). It is important that counselors become not only cognizant of how to comprehend statistics from research but the methods that were utilized in order to deliver those results. To further understand this concept I will research an article from a professional journal that employs statistical methods and concepts and briefly describe the study as well as three statistical concepts that were important in the article. In addition, I will also explicate their appropriate use for counseling research and also conclude with any ethical, legal or socio-cultural considerations that may be relevant for the statistical analysis or interpretation of the statistics.
In a recent article, a meta-analysis study was conducted to examine if the outcome of the gathered studies on media violence and hostile behavior correlated with the philosophies that have evolved to expound its effects. Both short and long-term effects were assessed for tumultuous behavior and from the hypothesis, it was proposed that temporary effects should be more significant for adults and lasting effects should be more significant for children. The study consisted of over four-hundred and thirty studies that were collectively comprised of over 68,000 participants, which entailed approximately fifty thousand adults and eighteen thousand children. The procedures included various types of violent-media exposure, which consisted of the following: television shows, films, arcade games, music, and comic magazines. Tumultuous behavior, ponderings, and emotions were assessed as well as heart rate and blood pressure levels (Bushman & Huesmann, 2006).
In order to acquire the results from the Meta-Analysis study, at least three statistical methods were utilized, which included obtaining the correlational coefficients, applying Fisher Z Transformations and computing a ninety-five percent confidence interval, to obtain the data (Bushman & Huesmann, 2006). The correlational coefficients or R were used in order to ascertain the degree to which two variable’s movements are associated. In this case, the association between the two variables would consist of exposure to violence and aggressive types of behavior. In addition, since the correlational coefficients are not computable, a Fisher Z transformation was applied to each of them, so that they can be calculated to an average numerical value. Each value then becomes normally distributed, once R is converted to Z and is independent from its original form (Garcia, 2010). Afterwards, a ninety-five percent confidence interval was created to exemplify the fact that if this procedure was replicated it would possess a ninety-five percent chance of containing the true limitation value. This helps you to estimate the true population mean and lets you avoid the additional effort that gathering a lot of extra data would require (Starmer, 2004). After the results from the study were calculated utilizing a Statistical Examination System, the hypothesis was affirmed. It was concluded that age was a significant factor on the duration of tumultuous behavior an individual displayed.
Going into retrospect, it may be concluded from the study that adults possessed temporary effects from media violence compared to its lasting effects in children. Though the results from the study exemplified strong concurrent validity, other possible ethical considerations that may be relevant for statistical analysis may be if another counselor wants to replicate the study. According to ACA Ethical Standard G.4.e, counselors are mandated to provide adequate research data to qualified professionals, who want to duplicate the study (Herlihy & Corey, 2006). Maintaining this information as well as one’s competence in utilizing statistical methodologies is not only a counselor’s ethical responsibility but helps to fortify the advancement of modalities and treatment overall within counseling profession.