The sky is the most mysterious part of our everyday experience. Familiarity may make the amazing events going on at ground level seem almost ordinary. Plants and animals grow and die, rain falls, rivers flow. We feel we understand that.
But the sky is beyond comprehension. Two great objects travel through it, one hot and constant, the other cold and changeable. In the daytime it is moody; there may be blazing sun, or racing clouds, or darkness followed by thunder and lightning. And yet on a clear night the sky is the very opposite – predictable, if you look hard enough, with recognizable groups of stars moving in a slow but reliable manner.
Man’s interest in the sky is at the heart of three separate stories – astronomy, astrology and the calendar. .
Astronomy is the scientific study of sun, moon and stars. Astrology is a pseudo-science interpreting the supposed effect of the heavenly bodies on human existence. In early history the two are closely linked. The sky is the home of many of the gods, who influence life on earth. And the patterns in the sky must surely reflect that influence.
Astrology is an elaborate system of knowledge and there are voluminous treatises containing very intricate calculation based on the position of stars and planets and the inter-relation existing between them and the various phenomena on earth including human life.
âAstrology does not offer an explanation of the laws of the universe, nor why the universe exists. What it does, to put it in simplest terms, is to show that there is a correspondence between macrocosm and microcosm. In short that there is a rhythm to the universe, and that manâs own life partakes of this rhythm.â (Miller, 2006)
Astrologyâs major focus is the zodiac which help in determine the characteristics of a person and the events that may take place. Therefore, at this point it becomes impertinent to cast a glance at zodiac signs,
The zodiac is the term used to describe the circle of twelve 30Â° divisions of celestial longitude that are centered upon the ecliptic – the path of the sun. The term zodiac derives from Latin zÅdiacus, which in its turn comes from a Greek word, meaning “circle of animals”.
From the earliest of times, the zodiac has been universally used to predict or reflect characteristics of personality, whether from the Chinese, Mesopotamian, Indus Valley, Egyptian or any other culture, echoing the ancient philosophy ‘As above – so below’… what we today call astrology.
The zodiac further categorizes into the planets and the elements which consist or represent the 12 zodiac signs, also known as the Sun signs: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces.
The Zodiac signs, also known as the Sun Signs, represent the 12 equal divisions of the topical zodiac which begins with the positions of the Sun. The twelve signs have the same names as the 12 segments of the constellations. The dates for each sign is determined by the Sun passing one sign to another. The dates are as follows:
Glyph Sign Birthdates Symbol
â Aries (the Ram) March 21 – April 20
â Taurus (the Bull) April 21 – May 21
Gemini (the Twins) May 22 – June 21
â Cancer (the Crab) June 22 – July 22
â Leo (the Lion) July 23 – August 23
â Virgo (the Virgin) August 24 – September 23
â Libra (the Balance) September 24 – October 23
â Scorpio (the Scorpion) October 24 – November 22
â Sagittarius (the Archer) November 23 – December 21
â’ Capricorn (the Goat) December 22 – January 20
â’ Aquarius (the Water-Bearer) January 21 – February 19
â” Pisces (the Fish) February 20 – March 20
Ruling Planet: Mars
Symbol: The Ram
Psychological Need: To be self-confident and free; to lead
Best Quality: Leadership
Key Traits: self-esteem, initiative, activity, pioneering, ambition, enterprise, courageous, energetic, impulsive, optimistic, egotistical, innovative, original, strong drive, leader, enthusiastic, extroverted, competitive, self-reliant, self-assured
Downside: egotistical, quick tempered, aggressiveness, hatred of restraint, officiousness (minding other peopleâs business, meddling)
Aries is a Fire sign whose ruling planet is Mars. This planet represents action, anger, energy and sex. This is considered a masculine sign, positive, extrovert.
Aries is the first sign of the zodiac, and also represents spring. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ This sign has a “me first” attitude
â¢ Are courageous and have an energetic drive to get the work done and to achieve goals
â¢ Pure honesty is expected by an Aries personality
â¢ Independence is a keyword of Aries personalities of astrology signs.
â¢ The Aries person has a tendency to be quick-tempered, opinionated, and critical.
â¢ Labelled as intolerant, selfish, cruel, and arrogant.
â¢ Aries personalities of astrology signs may have strong drive, high leadership qualities and be quite ambitious
â¢ Have strong self-reliance and self-assuredness.
â¢ They have a determined personality of astrology sign along with a powerful ego.
Ruling Planet: Venus
Symbol: The Bull
Psychological Need: To be resourceful and productive
Best Quality: Stability
Key Traits: affectionate, dependable, patient, stable, determination, endurance, thoroughness, conservative, harmony, possessions, practicality
Downside: obstinacy, stubbornness, argumentative, possessiveness, love of rich food, dull
Taurus is an earth sign ruled by the planet Venus in the common man and Vulcan in the man on the path to discipleship. Venus is the planet of harmony, love, beauty and music. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ They can be patient, reliable, warmhearted and loving. But, the flip-side is also just as common where they become possessive, overly emotional, self-indulgent and jealous.
â¢ Are known for their stability, reliability and dependability.
â¢ They are prone to being inflexible, short tempered, argumentative and the most stubborn
â¢ Taurus can be quite materialistic and greedy
â¢ They are conservative, conventional and introverted.
Ruling Planet: Mercury
Symbol: The Twins
Psychological Need: To communicate
Best Quality: Versatility
Key Traits: versatile, adaptable, nonconformist, inquisitive, curious, quick-witted, communication, networking, congenial, tactful, mentality, thinking, writing, speaking, literacy, speech, intellectual
Downside: changeable, fickle, indecision, superficiality, restless, nervousness
Gemini is an air sign ruled by Mercury in the common man and Venus in the man on the path to discipleship. Venus is the planet of harmony, love, beauty and music. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ Gemini are known to be “sociable.”
â¢ They appear to be restless or often scheming
â¢ The Gemini person is usually very versatile, flexible and a jack-of-all-trades making them appear quite intelligent
â¢ Gemini are scatter brained, silly and at best flexible
â¢ These lively, youthful people are not only quick-witted but great conversationalist.
â¢ Are vain, cold and insensitive
â¢ Are superficial because of their changeable nature.
â¢ Some can be very rigid idealists
Ruling Planet: Moon
Symbol: The Crab
Psychological Need: To give and receive emotional warmth and security
Best Quality: Tenacity
Key Traits: domesticity, sympathy, sensitiveness, artistry, tenacity, protectiveness, caring, nurturing, maternal
Downside: touchiness, timidity, clannishness, restlessness, indolence, overemotional, over-sentimental
Cancer is a water sign ruled by the Moon in the common man and Neptune in the man on the path to discipleship. Neptune is the planet of mystical consciousness, or the innate sensitivity which leads to higher vision. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ Intimate relationships and close friendships are important to a Cancer than another personality of astrology sign.
â¢ Cancers are homebodies who love their families and their homes.
â¢ They have a strong intuition
â¢ Safety and security are important
â¢ The Cancer person can be deeply emotional in fact overly emotional or sensitive at times to the point of being clingy, moody and irritable.
â¢ Cancers make loving and caring intimate partners.
â¢ Cancers are generous and kind to others spent.
â¢ Cancers thrive on emotional stability.
â¢ They can be too cautious, lazy, selfish and self-centered at times.
Ruling Planet: Sun
Symbol: The Lion
Psychological Need: To create and express oneself
Best Quality: Kindness (generosity)
Key Traits: affection, nobility, generosity, loyalty, dignity, leadership, radiant, vitality, authority, will, power
Downside: domination, arrogance, autocracy, cruelty, overbearing, vanity, ostentatious, false pride
Leo is a fire sign ruled by the Sun in the common man and also the in the man on the path to discipleship. The Sun represents your ego structure. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ Are confident individuals who are the most extroverted and flamboyant
â¢ These people can be very magnetic, sunny, and charismatic,
â¢ Leos have been known to over dramatization and act vainly when they express themselves.
â¢ They have a strong sense of character.
â¢ Leo rules the sense of self-worth.
Ruling Planet: Mercury
Symbol: The Virgin
Psychological Need: To analyze and find order
Best Quality: Analytical
Key Traits: discrimination, analytical, methodical-ness, service, helpful, studiousness, hygiene, purity, mentality
Downside: criticism, cynicism, fear of disease, perfectionism
Virgo is an earth sign ruled by the planet Mercury in the common man and the Moon in the man on the path to discipleship. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ Virgo people are the most health conscious
â¢ A Virgo would be a careful planner, calm, helpful, and dependable
â¢ They have a perfectionist attitude with fragile egos.
â¢ Virgos are very practical and responsible, but at times they can be picky, disorganized and even dependent.
â¢ If a Virgo becomes melancholy, they can project the worst of their negative side of fault finding, picky, superficial, critical and petty.
â¢ They are delightful people who will do anything for you in an unselfish, dependable and meticulous way.
â¢ Virgos can go overboard and become nervous hypochondriacs with their health consciousness.
â¢ They make romantic partners, with a good sense of humor, and can be impressive conversationalist.
â¢ They have excellent organizational skills
Ruling Planet: Venus
Symbol: The Scales
Psychological Need: To create harmony and balance
Best Quality: Affability
Key Traits: balance, harmony, companionship, charm, social grace, justice, courtesy, hopefulness, artistic ability, attractiveness, fairness
Downside: always needing approbation, indecision, lack of poise, emotional fluctuation, can’t say no
Libra is an air sign ruled by Venus in the common man and Uranus in the man on the path to discipleship. Venus influences your love nature. Venus is the Goddess of love and beauty, as well as the light of inspiration and devotion to truth. Uranus rules your search for freedom. It represents that which transcends the limits of the finite life. The personality characteristics of this sign are as follows:
â¢ A Libra person has a strong sense of what they consider right and wrong.
â¢ They have a need for peace, as well as to please everyone and have everyone like them.
â¢ Balance is their goal
â¢ When the worst comes out in a Libra can be insincere, fickled, self-indulgent who can be quite apathetic.
â¢ They are extroverts and sociable
â¢ They are charming fair-minded person will be poised gracious and kind.
â¢ Libraâs have been known to be somewhat flirtatious, tending towards gossip since others feel very comfortable around these sociable types.
â¢ But they are known for their the white lies, self-indulgence, and their need for peace at any price
â¢ They are easily influenced and quite gullible at times.
â¢ They will be loyal and fair
Ruling Planet: Pluto/Mars
Symbol: The Scorpion
Psychological Need: To experience intense emotional transformation
Best Quality: Resourcefulness
Key Traits: regeneration, courage, desire, resourcefulness, cunning, secretive, austere, determined
Downside: discord, misuse of sex, passion, temper, willfulness, vindictive, resentful, jealousy, envy, possessiveness, troublesome, uncompromising
Scorpio is a water sign ruled by the planets Mars and Pluto in the common man and Mars also in the man on the path to discipleship. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ Desire of all kinds rule this sign.
â¢ Scorpio are strong-willed, bold, courageous, competitive, resourceful, mysterious and direct.
â¢ Scorpios have one of the most intense, intuitive and complex souls of the personalities of astrology signs
â¢ They are one of the most secretive of all
â¢ Some would call them controlling, jealous, destructive and sarcastic.
â¢ Scorpios are very suspicious and intolerant and cruel or violent.
â¢ As a friend, Scorpios are very loyal and helpful.
Ruling Planet: Jupiter
Symbol: The Archer/Centaur
Psychological Need: To explore and expand horizons
Best Quality: Loyalty
Key Traits: aspiration, love of freedom, expansion, exploration, idealism, luck, orthodox religion, philosophy, law, generosity, optimism, honesty
Downside: over-confidence, dogmatism, bluntness, exaggeration, fanaticism, sportiveness, gambling
Sagittarius is a Fire Sign. In the orthodox man the ruling planet is Jupiter with tendencies like ambitious desire and direction. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ This is the most free-spirited, easy-going, inquisitive and straightforward
â¢ Sagittarians think deeply about the big picture
â¢ Maintaining a fun, child-like quality throughout life
â¢ They are the most optimistic of all the personalities of astrology signs, possessing idealistic philosophical feelings.
â¢ This sign is a seeker of knowledge
â¢ Sports are of great interest to a Sagittarian with abundant energy.
â¢ A true Sagittarian has grace, beneficence, and is full of harmony and completion.
â¢ This sign loves to travel and makes friends easily.
â¢ They are hot-headed.
â¢ They are eternal procrastinators
Ruling Planet: Saturn
Symbol: The Goat/Sea Goat
Psychological Need: To find structure and social acknowledgment
Best Quality: Diplomacy
Key Traits: ambition, conservatism, conscientiousness, organization, position, honors, justice, caution, economy, authority,
Downside: pride, suspicion, selfishness, resentfulness, pessimism, unforgiving, deceitfulness, justice without mercy
Capricorns are an Earth Sign in which both the orthodox man and the disciple are ruled by the planet Saturn. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ They love power, respect and authority.
â¢ Capricorns are cool, calm, self-disciplined and possess a powerful inner strength
â¢ They are prudent, conservative, very practical and responsible.
â¢ Capricorns approach finances with prudence, planning and discipline.
â¢ Capricorns are the eternal opportunists
â¢ Their general outlook is fairly rigid and unmoving.
â¢ Many will consider this sign to be an egotistical, demanding and intolerant status seeker.
â¢ They will provide stability, loyalty and security for life.
â¢ They display a degree of pessimism.
Ruling Planet: Uranus/Saturn
Symbol: The Water-bearer
Psychological Need: To innovate, be original, and break forms
Best Quality: Altruism
Key Traits: humanitarianism, independence, originality, progressiveness, cooperation, brotherhood, diplomacy, altruism
Downside: argumentative, impractical, emotionally-detached, dictatorship, stubborn or closed-minded, rebellious
This is an Air Sign ruled by Uranus and Saturn in the ordinary man, and Jupiter in the disciple. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ They are idealistic unconventional thinkers
â¢ In fact some will think an Aquarian to be impersonal, too radical, rebellious, unrealistic and impractical
â¢ They are progressive, unique, logical and ingenious.
â¢ Aquarian is smart, quick, fun and a memorable person.
â¢ Some may appear unsympathetic and cold fanatic.
â¢ These personalities of astrology signs tends to stay free and self-reliant.
Ruling Planet: Neptune/Jupiter
Symbol: The Fish
Psychological Need: To gain faith and belief in transcendence
Best Quality: Sympathy
Key Traits: compassion, universality, intuitiveness, inspiration, renunciation, sacrifice
Downside: worry, psychic negativity, introspection, lack of confidence, secretiveness, seclusion, procrastination, sorrow
Pisces is a Water Sign ruled by Neptune and Jupiter in the conventional man, and Pluto in the disciple. The personality characteristics of this signs are as follows:
â¢ Pisces are patient, perceptive, spiritual, peace-loving and imaginative person
â¢ Pisces like to influence others through their compassionate, charitable and imaginative natures, but they are often influenced and vulnerable.
â¢ Are considerate and sensitive
â¢ This is an artistic, creative and psychic sign with a keen imagination.
â¢ They are easily influenced or impressionable.
â¢ They have qualities of decisiveness, timidity, melancholies
â¢ Pisces will be a deep caring individual
â¢ The Piscean worker is personable, easygoing and charming
Every zodiac sign is allied with a planet which defines it in terms of personality traits and characteristics.
Through thousands of years of observation, two things have been noted:
â¢ Each planet represents an energetic part of our being, or a component of life (i.e. emotions, communication style, and love style).
â¢ The position of each planet in the heavens indicates the style in which the planetâs component is manifested.
Natal astrology observes that the positions of the planets at the moment of your birth indicate the style in which each planet’s component is manifested in your life.
Greeks believed that the planets were gods or the living instruments of gods. This means that they were considered agents, in the same sense that human beings are considered agents: they could act and be acted upon in ways comprehensible to us, at least in principle. One aspect of the planetsâ life and behavior we can observe and even predict: their motions and their positions relative to one another, to the zodiac, and the horizon.
The planets acquired their personas from the Greek gods whose manifestations they were. This is true in a primary way of the five, and in a secondary way of the two luminaries, for the Sun acquired some of the traits of Apollo and the Moon some of the traits of Artemis/ Diana. Primarily, though, the Sun carries the persona imputed to the Sun god â” which is of course a tautology, indicating only that in the ancient world the Sun was divine. Likewise the Moon.
Each Greek God has his/her own personality which is reflected through the planets. The descriptions below describe how each planet is represented as well as the sign equivalent to it.
â The Sun
Best quality: Rulership
Worst quality: Dictativeness
The Sun tells us of the actual core of a person, the inner self, of that which is of central concern. It also shows us the general vitality and the ability to assert oneself, it describes a general tone of being which colors everything else.
Sign equivalent: Leo
â½ The Moon
Best quality: Adaptability
Worst quality: Inconstancy
The Moon represents our feelings and emotions, the receptivity, imagination and basic feeling tone of a person. It also has an effect on the sense of rhythm, time and timing, it influences our adaptability to change, our mobility and versatility.
Sign equivalent: Cancer
Best quality: Expression
Worst quality: Restlessness
Mercury represents reason, reasonableness (common sense), that which is rational. It stands for the spoken and written word, putting in order, weighing and evaluating, the process of learning and skills.
Sign equivalents: Gemini and Virgo
Best quality: Affection
Worst quality: Pliancy (bending too easily, taking the easy way out)
Venus gives us a sense of beauty, the enjoyment of pleasure, aesthetic awareness, love of harmony, sociability, taking pleasure in relationships and eroticism.
Sign equivalents: Libra and Taurus
Best quality: Initiative
Worst quality: Harshness
Mars represents the energy and drive of a person, their courage, determination, and the freedom of spontaneous impulse. It also describes the readiness for action, the way one goes about doing things as well as simple aggression.
Sign equivalent: Aries
Best quality: Benevolence (kindness)
Worst quality: Conceit
The search for individual meaning and purpose, optimism, hope and a sense of justice are represented by Jupiter. So also faith, a basic philosophy of life, the striving for spiritual growth and expansion.
Sign equivalent: Sagittarius
Best quality: System and Organization
Worst quality: Selfishness
Saturn shows how we experience “reality”, where we meet with resistance and discover our limitations. It represents the conscience and moral conviction, the laws and rules which we choose to obey. It also tells us about our powers of endurance and the ability to concentrate, it lends qualities like earnestness, caution and reserve.
Sign equivalent: Capricorn
Best quality: Originality
Worst quality: Rebellion
Uranus stands for intuition, it transmits sudden inspiration and lightning insights. An openness for all that is new, unknown and unusual. A sort of wrong-headed contrariness is also associated with this planet. It is said to be characteristic of astrology as such.
Sign equivalent: Aquarius
Best quality: Idealism
Worst quality: Vagueness
This planet gives us the supersensory, opens doors to mystical experience and the transcendental. On this level it is hard to discern where perception moves into deception, illusion and false appearances, and so Neptune is associated with all of these, with drugs and all kinds of pseudo-realities.
Sign equivalent: Pisces
Best quality: Transformation
Worst quality: Inversion (turning things upside down)
Pluto describes how we deal with power, personal and non-personal, be it through suffering the power of others or exercising it ourselves. It describes how we meet the demonic and magical, our regenerative powers and our capacity for radical change and rebirth: the cycles of dying and becoming.
Sign equivalent: Scorpio
(Greene, 1977 & Corrine, 2009)
The other categorization of the zodiac signs are the 4 elements: Fire, Earth, Air and Water. These are also regarded as the 4 basic principles of life. Each element is assigned to 3 Sun signs which is known as the triplicity.
The “four elements” of astrological tradition refer to the vital forces (or energies) that make up the entire creation that is commonly perceived by human beings. The four elements in a birth chart reveal the ability to participate in certain realms of being and to tune in to specific fields of life experience.
The four elementsâ”Fire, Earth, Air, and Waterâ”each represent a basic kind of energy and consciousness that operates within everyone. Each person is consciously more attuned to some types of energy than others.
The fire signs are Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius. Fire signs respond to energy very quickly. They favor action. They are ready to go, take a risk, start a business, go on a trip, etc. They are confident, idealistic, intense, and approach life with zest and enthusiasm. Here is energy to conquer, lead, and travel physically and mentally. Aries must act, Leo must lead grandly, and Sagittarius explores unknown places and ideas.
Positive Traits: extroverted, energetic, enthusiastic, inspirational, visionary, high-spirited, simple and direct, physically active, dramatic, courageous, warm
Negative Traits: overly active to the point of burnout, restless, impatient, selfish, insensitive, willful, hasty, lacking in perspective, thoughtless, impulsive, reckless, extravagant, and wild.
The Earth signs are Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn. Earth signs are more cautious in their approach. They are more practical, realistic, and they need solid footing before going forward. Taurus will dig the heels in and really ponder things. Virgo will analyze. Capricorn will climb, but will do it with care, first needing a vision, a plan, an organized structure before starting the ascent. Earth signs are dependable, thorough and solid.
Earth signs seek to engage the physical world and master it through efficient organization. Earth signs seek economic security, respect, and prestige, and they work hard for it.
Positive Traits: practical, efficient, organized, realistic, patient, self-disciplined, hard-working, productive, enduring, persistent, dependable, stable, good common sense
Negative Traits: slow, stodgy, lacking in vision, unimaginative, petty, excessively conventional, narrow-minded, stubborn, resistant to change, hoarding, ultra conservative.
The Air signs are Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius. Air signs approach energy mentally; they are thinkers. They are social, always ready for a new relationship or friendship. They love learning, but bore easily. Gemini has great intellectual curiosity, but too many personalities. Libra is partnership driven, but not in an emotional way. Aquarius is popular with friends and is unstoppable when it has a cause to champion. Air signs are into ideas and people. They are communicative; they must share information, interact with others, and influence society.
Positive Traits: articulate, objective, mentally clear, detached, capable of forethought, understanding, socially adept and adaptable, cooperative, relational
Negative Traits: unemotional, lacking in sympathy, impractical, disassociated from the body and the physical world, over-adaptive, abstracted, glib and facile, hyperactive
The Water signs are Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces. Water signs respond to energy almost unconsciously. They are deeply emotional. Cancer is motivated to nurture and be nurtured. Scorpio has intense vision, never swaying, looking straight ahead with laser-like focus. Pisces is the trickiest to describe. Pisces energy is chameleon-like, absorbing its surroundings.
Positive Traits: deeply emotional, sympathetic, empathetic, nurturing, calm and peaceful, sensitive, compassionate, imaginative, intuitive, psychically aware
Negative Traits: emotionally insecure and unstable, shy, timid, lacking in confidence, oversensitive, easily influenced and manipulated, withdrawn, uncommunicative, vindictive and vengeful, takes everything personally, moody and depressed
Each individual born belong to a particular planet, element or zodiac signs might carry traits which makes them similar and different form each other. This researchâs purpose is to explore the area of zodiac signs and how they might be linked with the personality traits of each individual.
Review of Literature
Astrology is a complex system that dates back to the third Millennium B.C. It is based on celestial observations and correlating events. Astrology helped lay the foundation for the development of astronomy. It has influenced belief systems and even entire cultures. The many components of astrology, such as signs, planets and aspects, are what make it a complex system. The many components are considered when forming accurate readings of astrological transitions and how they relate to each individual.
Anyone can gain greater personal understanding with astrology since it affects peoplesâ lives just as the moon influences the tides. Astrology provides the tools that can help make the best and most informed decisions. It is like a map for the soul that provides individuals with insights into the future, and reveals the tendencies, quirks, and truth about human nature, relationships, career choices and the world at large. Astrology may be used as a guide for daily living, as well as for forecasting and predictions
The link between the zodiac signs and the personality characteristics has been explored numerous times resulting with either significant but mostly insignificant results, The following studies show the results of various researches made upon this topic
Another study by Hume and Goldstien (1977) on 196 college students investigate the hypothesis and that the personality can be predicted on the basis of an individualâs astrological chart. In the study, two separate, renowned personality tests were administered and the hypothesis could not be supported as the results showed the participants couldnât accurately identify their astrological personality at a greater than chance level.
The two studies by Illingworth and Syme (1977) and Tyson (1977) found no correlation between sun sign and personality traits measured by the CPI, including the femininity index.
In his research, Dean (1983) conducted a test by the UK Sunday newspaper News of the World, a panel of four astrologers were able to guess the Sun signs of 8 out of 12 subjects (one for each sign) following one or two interviews lasting no more than five minutes each, vs 1 expected by chance. The test was repeated in 1981 and again the panel got 8 out of 12 right.
Gauquelin (1982) compiled personality profiles from biographies of 2000 sports figures, actors, scientists, and writers. Compared these profiles with personality traits associated with the sign of the sun, moon, and ascendant according to eight astrology texts. No correlation was found using either the sidereal or tropical zodiac.
Pawlik and Buseâs (1984) study on 799 adult subjects consisted of a test is presented of the hypothesis that the relationship between astrological birth sign and personality differences in extraversion and neuroticism (as reported by Mayo, White and Eysenck) can be explained in terms of self-attribution of personality. An explanation of the Mayo-White-Eysenck results in terms of attribution theory was essentially verified
Dean (1985) tested whether astrology can predict E (extraversion) and N (emotionality) in ordinary people, the test was conducted over 1198 subjects mostly from the southern hemisphere, all of whom had known birth times. The results of 132 such tests, and a multiple discriminant analysis, showed that no factor performed consistently above chance level.
Dwyer (1987), in his research paper, used a sample of 175 mixed adults who completed a 36-item questionnaire addressed to likely Pluto meanings, namely intensification, exaggeration, social power, transformation, and suppression. The results were suggestive of no meaningful trend whatever, which does not deny that Pluto may have meanings other than those tested
According to the study by AinO (1992) the sign positions of the Sun, Mercury, Venus and Mars were compared between 5147 psychology students and 3232 engineering students. No result was significant.
AinO (1993) tested the claim that the Sun’s element at birth is related to the psychological functions in Carl Jung’s typology, specifically whether the Sun in a Fire sign is related to a dominant Intuition function, Earth to Sensing, Air to Thinking, and Water to Feeling. I was tested over 370 subjects (168 males, 202 females). When the 370 cases were divided into Intuition vs Sensing, or into Thinking vs Feeling, the relation with element was again non-significant
This study by Rooij (1994) replicated the study by Mayo, White and Eysenck that confirmed the astrological proposition that people born with the sun in a positive sign (Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius, Aquarius) are extraverted and those with the sun in a negative sign (Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, Capricorn, Pisces) are introverted.
A study by Wymen and Vyse (2008) explores the effect of horoscope on peopleâs personalities and indicates how investigation is made difficult by the Barnum Effect, a concept which refers to peoplesâ inclination to allow their personalities to be summed up using indistinct, unclear and broad descriptions. In the case of an investigation into the effects of star songs on a personâs personality the Barnum Effect can have significant consequences as it increases ambiguity and undermines the attainment of empirical data.
Clarke, Gabriels & Barnes (2010) suggests that the astrological theories assume a link between an individual’s personality traits and the positions of the sun, moon, and planets in the zodiac at the moment of birth.) Scores on extroversion and emotionality were obtained from 190 first-year university students. Multiple t tests showed a significantly greater mean extroversion score for the group with both the sun and the moon in positive signs than for the group with both in negative signs. No other differences in means were significant. The findings generally did not support theories claiming that tendencies toward extroversion and emotionality are determined by astrological signs.
In his study, Steyn (2011) examined the relationship between astrological signs and personality traits in 65, 268 South African jobseekers (mean age = 24.8 years, females = 59%, Blacks = 98%). Contrastive analysis of personality traits by astrological signs yielded no significant differences.
A research paper by Silverman & Whitmer indicated how the subjects might be aggressive, ambitious, creative, intuitive, and extroverted. As exact birth times were available for subjects, it was possible to determine their sun, moon, and ascending signs. The results showed that the astrological indicators of personality were not related to either self or friends’ descriptions of the subjects’ personalities
â¢ Aquarius Zodiac Sign Astrology. (2012). In Free Astrology Lessons. Retrieved from http://astrolibrary.org/aquarius/
â¢ Aries Zodiac Sign Astrology. (2012). In Free Astrology Lessons. Retrieved from http://astrolibrary.org/aries/
â¢ Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1992). FOUR TEMPERAMENTS, ASTROLOGY PERSONALITY TESTING. Santa Barbara, California: EastGate Publishers.
â¢ Cancer Zodiac Sign Astrology. (2012). In Free Astrology Lessons. Retrieved from http://astrolibrary.org/cancer/
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