Approaches To Agriculture In The Hill Districts Of Uttarakhand

First, there is a need to encourage diversification in agriculture consistent with the agro-climatic conditions. It will be brilliant to encourage agriculture that is based on high-value herbal, medicinal and aromatic plantation. Since markets are a great complexity, associations with retailers and ayurvedic firms should be spread. A legal communication or understanding should be signed with retailers and firms backed by legislation in order to prevent exploitation of farmers; this will help in evolving rules for fair transactions. This should be in coordination with the Herbal Research and Development Institute (HRDI) to help farmers in selecting village-specific commodities. It will help to address regional disparity and facilitate poverty alleviation.

Alternative areas of diversification are towards horticulture crops, spices and condiments (chilies, ginger, and garlic), tea plantation, floriculture, oilseeds (sesamum, rapeseed & mustard and soybean) and traditional hill grains (mandua, bhatt, sanwa, urad, gahat). Intercropping of aromatic plants with conventional grains can also help in diversifying the income basket of small and marginal farmers.

Agricultural growth needs to be supported by adequate storage, warehousing and marketing facilities
which will generate employment in the informal sector. It will also help to address regional disparity and facilitate poverty alleviation.

It is also important to build up suitable technology for small farm size. There is also a necessity for developing better farming practices in horticulture, poultry, dairy and fishery, the consumption of which is going to raise substantially. In this attempt, agricultural scientists have an important role to play.

Second, initiatives need to be taken to persuade sustainable industrial development well-matched with the unique bio-diversity of the State which in turn could create local employment and reduces resettlements. Since the State is rich in water resources, there is a comparative advantage in developing the hydro-electric sector in an environmentally sustainable manner. Other industries that can be developed in uttarakhand are like horticulture based industrial activities, forest and mineral based industries as they are the two most important natural resource. Regrettably, exploitation of these natural resources can also lead to environment destabilization and because of the concern of the environment health in the recent years and a considerable opposition against mining and the commercial exploitation of the forest This therefore becomes very important issue before anyone trying to advocate industrialization in the State. On the one hand it will benefit local people by providing job opportunity on the other hand it can cause environmental issues, in the view of this a clear cut industrial policy should be implemented In the state. It should clearly indicate the areas where mining and the other industrial activities can be undertaken and what measures should be taken to rehabilitation of the displaced people and for the cure of the environment. Other suggestive industrial investment can be made in:

' Tourism
' Agro based industries
' Floriculture
' Fishery
' Bee keeping
' Handicraft industry like carpet weaving, wood carving brassware, copper based industries.
' Banking and Insurance
' Biotechnology
' Wool based Industry
' Sericulture.

Third, there is a necessity to link the infrastructure shortage in the State with the active input of the private sector. Better infrastructure will facilitate exploitation of the tourism potential. Recognized tourist zones can be connected by superior quality roads besides exploring the possibilities of providing air links over the medium-term. Development in the infrastructure will also help in uplifting business which in turn will also improve economic status of the state by providing ample of job opportunities locally. We cannot forget the mishap that took place in June 2013 in Uttarakhand, which almost shaken the entire Uttarakhand economy, Many pilgrims and residents wondered why the government had not made proper arrangements for the Char Dham Yatra even after 12 years of formation of Uttarakhand.

Unprecedented destruction by the rainfall witnessed in Uttarakhand state was attributed, by environmentalists, to unscientific developmental activities undertaken in recent decades contributing to high level of loss of property and lives. Roads constructed in haphazard style, new resorts and hotels built on fragile river banks and more than 70 hydroelectric projects in the watersheds of the state led to a "disaster waiting to happen" as termed by certain environmentalists The environmental experts reported that the tunnels built and blasts undertaken for the 70 hydro electric projects contributed to the ecological imbalance in the state, with flows of river water restricted and the streamside development activity contributing to a higher number of landslides and more flooding.

Obviously, we do not want to see such tragedy again, so It is a need of the state to develop a better infrastructure facilities along with the proper consideration to environmental issues of the hilly state' As this natural beauty of the state not only brings business to the state but also is directly attached to our religious emotions.

Fourth, the high level of literacy creates chances for further growth through knowledge-based industries. It is, therefore, required to set up quality higher learning and professional education centers to provide knowledge-workers. In recent years sustained and high levels of economic growth offer a exceptional opportunity and drive for faster social sector development. Spending in education plays a key in role in achieving the World Bank's social development objectives, which support inclusive growth, social structure, and accountability in development. Professor Amartya Sen recently put emphasis on education as an important parameter for any inclusive growth in an economy. The policies have to focus on inclusive rather than disruptive growth strategies. Corporate India moving towards this sector is admirable, but it is clear that shortage in education cannot be met up by mere opening out of private schools in urban areas. "Public education is as necessary as public health care, no matter what additional role private schools and private medical care can play"(Prof. Sen, 2008). Japan's Fundamental Code of Education of 1872 had resulted in total literacy by 1910 and by 1913 Japan was publishing books twice as much as U.S.

Admission to class basic education is very important not only to lessen social and regional disparities, but also to achieve impartial growth and development. Accessibility of resources alone does not assure faster social sector development. Effectiveness of the programme will depend a lot on the approach in which States realize various social sector programmes, which are chiefly in the domain of the States. States, which have given high attention towards investment in education, have revealed greater economic progress in current years. An early attentiveness on building schools and providing tools has given way to greater focus on excellence and content, with an importance on primary education, to improve admission for those previously debarred from education, particularly girls and child labour, the rural poor and weaker sections of society or other debarred minorities. Education, therefore for the weaker sections of the society needs to become the common remedy and an inclusive growth strategy for their economic and social up-liftment

Fifth, there is, a need to get improved credit culture where banks can find out innovative customized business models with a greater emphasis on group lending. This in turn could help decrease inequality in credit distribution.

Sixth, the financial sector in the State is dominated by commercial banks. Hence, the reach of banking services is vital for greater economic activity. In this context, the quantitative achievement of banking coverage revealed in increase in no-frills accounts need to be transformed into meaningful financial inclusion by active loan and deposit transactions in these accounts. The biological peculiarities of the State along with small size of scattered settlements make it difficult for physical location of branches. Therefore, stress can be placed on mobile branches with greater dependence on information technology. In this progression, all the stake-holders - banks, the State Government and the Reserve Bank- require to work in close coordination.

The key element of our 'strategy of inclusive growth' should be inclusive governance as the means to give power to the underprivileged, with the aim of facilitate them to rise above their poverty. It is the effective empowerment of the underprivileged through transfer of functions, finances and functionaries to the representative institutions. (Which states that anything which can be done at a lower level should be done at that level and not at higher level), that will ease the way to the effective realization of other measures of inclusive growth. These include:

' Speed up investments, infrastructure development and agriculture in rural areas.
' Increase credit accessibility, particularly to farmers and others, and offering them suitable prices for their crops
' Increase rural employment, including the provision of a exclusive social safety net in the shape of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme
' Increase in public spending on education and health care, including escalation the midday meal programme and contributing scholarships to the needy and deprived.
' Investment in urban re-establishment, improving the quality of life for the urban poor.
' Empowering the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, other backward classes,
minorities, women and children, socially, economically and educationally
' Ensuring that, through public investment, the growth process spreads to backward districts of State.
' The dominant role of forest and environment in the states development necessitates, restructuring of forest and environmental policies with 'Green Centric' mind set for the hilly regions.

We cannot secure inclusive growth without inclusive governance.

From the above one can understand that some firm efforts are all that is required in

' To look at children of weaker segment as citizens with civil rights rather than objects of charity. Their wellbeing must turn out to be the centre-piece and benchmark of policy. Policies must look for and tackle the source cause of children problems, not just their outer expression.

' Importance has to be on devolution, public-private participation, society Involvement and a basic change in the mindset of the people. Mainly in rural areas, where the problem is at large to improve the quality of education.

' For the weaker sections. Community elders with their optimistic contribution and involvement can help solve a lot of existing problems.

' Qualified People of the state along with other bodies weather, governmental
or nongovernmental should spread understanding among the common people about the value of being an organic state and take initiative to make and keep the uttarakhand green and clean.

Thus what is required is a systematic, responsible and crystal clear approach without piecemeal inputs. This would help to meet the challenges that the state is already facing in the path of inclusive growth, be it an issues related to education, social status, economic status, environmental degradation or women empowerment.

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