Mexico's Housing Finance System

Monkkonen (2009) states that the striking modification and expansion of Mexico's housing finance system ever since the early on 1990s has changed manufacture and acquisition of housing in Mexico. Further housing is now built by official private sector construction companies and purchased with mortgages than through the unofficial, incremental process that traditionally housed the majority of the population. Most housing finance is provided by government lenders, with firm limitations on eligibility for loans and on the houses they can be used to purchase. These limits have consequential slight effects on urban progress in the country; leading to neighborhoods that have a more homogenous housing supply and are more segregated. Accepting the impact of housing finance on the home building commerce, access to housing, regional growth, and residential segregation is serious to understanding the fast conversion of state life and culture as Mexico moves into the twenty-first century.
According to Qadeer (1996) Pakistan like most Third World countries, is snowed under by urban problems, namely acute shortages of housing, huge shortfalls in the provision of water supply, sewers, drainage, waste removal, traffic management, electricity transport, pollution control, congested and sprawled-out cities, ill-managed land market and inefficient land use systems, and wide social disparities in the quality of life of the poor and the rich, etc. So extensive and intense are these problems that the term 'urban crisis' is applied to the on the whole occurrence. Pakistan has all the mechanism of an urban crisis. A large part of urban troubles take place from inadequacies and inequities in the provision of public goods, community services and facilities. Therefore, urban housing policies are often assessed by criteria of importance and effectiveness of various measures from a community welfare perspective. The Pakistan government has been a lead the way in initiating urban policies. Since the beginning of development planning in the 1950s, 'Housing and Settlements' has been a separate sector of Five-Year Plans, though the title changed to 'Physical Planning and Housing'. The federal government has been the prime actor in urban policies through its Five-Year Plans, its financing of development and as the primary conduit of foreign aid, as well as with its powers to override Provinces. Specifically, this describes and analyzes Pakistan's urban policies as they have evolved over the past 50 years. It assesses the outcomes of these policies in terms of their stated and implicit public goals. It also determines who has benefited from these policies and on whose sufferance.
Manoochehri .J (2009) states to find the union between social values and standards in social housing in two major milestones in the developments in state-provided housing. The fresh spirit of optimism after the Second World War was developed by the latter part of the 1960s into the influential Parker Morris report. Having been commissioned by a Conservative Government in 1959 it was made obligatory for social housing in 1967 by the Labor Party in government. The post-war years that heralded the inception of the welfare state in Britain and are often referred to as the Consensus years, are investigated here and found to be centered on a social democratic agenda. In contrast with the above period, the post-1979 years became identified with their embrace of a liberal agenda, formulated by neo-liberal thinkers and politicians. This period which has the hallmarks of what has been referred to as a neo-liberal consensus was identified by the state efforts to reverse the social democratic agenda of the post-war years. Substantial social policy changes can be identified in the two contrasting periods, manifested particularly in the adoption of the universalist approach to social policy in the former with the selectivity approach in the latter period. This thesis investigates the factors that led to changes in

Standards in social housing in the two periods by searching for correlations between policy changes from universalism to collectivism and the dominant social values of the time. A number of housing estates were selected and the space and environmental standards in them were compared to verify the changes in standards. The political Party manifestos, policy documents, committee papers and recommendations were analyzed to find indications of the state's ideological stance at the given periods. The policy statements and social and housing policies were also analyzed to find the correlation between the string of factors that lead from the state to the final built artifact in the form of social values, social policies, housing policies and social housing standards. In order to verify the findings of the research, semi-structured informal interviews were conducted with prominent actors in provision of social housing. In addition two housing estates were studied in detail as case studies of each period. The research found that the periods of ascendancy of social democratic ideology in the state, and social values based on the significance of the collective society and the equality of all citizens led to higher space standards in social housing, while the periods of ascendancy of neo-liberal ideology in the state, and social values based on the significance of individual action based on dominance of market relations led to a drop in social housing standards. A significant finding of this research was the importance of individual actors involved in the provision of social housing and their role in interpreting regulations in favor (or against) promoting higher or lower standards.
Bratt, Stone, and Hartman, (2006) states that housing forms one of the indispensable needs of human. Maslow's Theory Hierarchy of Needs sees that housing forms the leading important needs, in addition to security, food and others, at the lowest among the five levels. Acknowledging this significance, the Malaysian administration has drawn a variety of policies to facilitate homeownership. This has resulted in the housing industry to enormously grow over the last 30 years through provision of housing to a large section of the population guided by the vision of 'home owning democracy'. The growth of the Malaysian housing sector has been underpinned by the interface between three forces; growing population, high rates of urbanization and growing economy. There are policies currently in place that assist to address housing for needy. However, little is done to attend to the needs of the middle income group. This is made worse by non-existence of the authoritative definition of the term 'middle income household' itself. Against this background, the main objective of this study is to investigate the affordability profiles of middle-income .Earners in each main city to derive the levels of house prices they can afford its ability to evaluate accessibility to affordable housing amongst the middle income households. It investigates the profiles of reasonably priced housing supply in terms of prices, the types of houses and the locations.
According to Samuel.G(1996) as the housing and rent prices carry on to rise in cities in the united states it is becoming more and more difficult for low income households to find reasonably priced housing. Public housing authorities who are the main providers of housing opportunities to this population and are limited in their capacity to develop more housing units or provide more housing choices. With the elimination of public housing development fund and restrictions on their subsidy program .The public housing authority can do to address housing issues.
Hassaballa el Kafrawy (2012) note that the access to housing finance is a worldwide problem even in many countries that are termed developed. Governments around the world have been addressing this problem for numerous decades. Some development has been made in some cases, while demographic and macroeconomic challenges have made it almost impossible in other cases. In general part of the solution is to seek a new perspective, a new policy framework and a new institutional mechanism to extend the reach of mortgage market to improve the means by which low and moderate-income households are able to access affordable and decent housing.
Fahmi and Sutton (2008) states that the generic dilemma that eliminates a part of the population in any country from the housing market is affordability. Access to reasonably priced and decent housing is one of the most important challenges faced by any government around the globe. The gap between income and housing cost has brought a number of severe social ills too many countries, as well as overcrowding, unsanitary living circumstances, alienation, social unrest and environmental pollution Thus, many governments have been trying to address the affordability problem for a number of years, based on whatever limited assets are available to them. Some progress has been made in some cases, but the challenges remain complex in other cases.
According to Sengupta (2006) the living circumstances of many low and moderate-income households in developing countries is no exception, and are characterized by substandard housing and neighborhoods. Initially, policies dealt with ready-made housing and the construction of houses based on government-sponsored community-based and/or self-help program Gradually the focus shifted to extending the reach of mortgage credit, or in other words, extending credit to households who 89 would otherwise have limited access to the mortgage credit market. Efforts are made to reach low- and moderate-income households with mortgage credit but this is only achieved with great difficulty, if at all Even if the efforts appear to be successful, cost recovery remains problematic. Coskun( 2011) note that housing is one of the major socio-economic problems in developing countries. Widespread spontaneous settlements in urban area may be accepted as the sufficient criterion for the level of housing question. .Additionally, there are important quality problems in existing housing units. This problematic structure may be also explained by the lack of efficient housing policies and housing finance system. It may be argued that the current housing policy is one-dimensional and also would be unsustainable in some perspectives. It analyzes whether affordable housing problem is reduce with alternative policies and required incentives. The alternative housing supply models may improve housing affordability and hence minimize the housing question in Turkey, if they can optimally design and required incentives may meet by the central/local governments.
Officials Owning House
116. Majority of the employees 67.05% did not own any house. Whereas 32.95% of the total employees have their own houses. Out of 77,407 house owners, 5.91% were in BPS 17 to 22 and 94.09% were in BPS 1 to 16.
i. BPS 1 to 2:- Of the total employees in BPS 1 and 2, only 32.46% owned houses in their own names whereas 67.54% did not own any house.
ii. BPS 3 to 10:- Out of employees in BPS 3 to 10, only 33.69% owned houses in their own names whereas 66.31% did not own house.
iii. BPS 11 to 15:- Of the total employees in BPS 11 to 15 only 29.31% owned houses in their own names, whereas 70.69% did not own any house.
iv. BPS 16:- Out of civil servants in BPS 16, only 36.19% owned houses in their own names whereas 63.81% did not own any house.
v. BPS 17 to 18:- Of the strength of civil servants in BPS 17 to 18, 35.15% owned houses in their own names whereas 64.85% did not own any house.
vi. BPS 19 to 22:- Among the officers in BPS 19 to 22, 40.21% owned houses in their own names whereas 59.79% did not own any house.
117. Of the total civil servants, 14.09% were provided with Government owned accommodation, 7.66% were residing in Government hired and requisitioned houses. 22.35% were residing in their own/wive's houses and 15% in rented houses whereas 40.90% employees had some other arrangements.
118. Among officers (BPS 17-22), 48.45% were residing in accommodation provided by the Government. Out of staff (BPS 1-16), only 20.23% were residing in the accommodation provided by the Government.

Government Accommodation
119. The highest percentage (61.43%) of officials residing in Government accommodation was those belonged to BPS 20-22. The second position in this regard went to officers in BPS 17-19 with 47.31% of employees of the said BPS. The least percentage (14.45%) in this regard was among the employees belonging to BPS 1-2.
Own / Wives's Houses
120. The highest percentage of officials residing in their own/wive's houses was those belonged to BPS 16 with 24.22% of total employees of (BPS 16). The second credit in this regard went to the employees belonging to BPS 3-10 with 23.16% of total employees of (BPS 3-10). The third position went to BPS 1-2 which is 22.45% of total employees of (BPS 1-2). The fourth position went to BPS 17-19 with 21.54% of total employees of (BPS 17-19). The fifth position went to BPS 11-15 with 19.38% of total employees of (BPS 11-15) and the least percentage 18.06%, BPS 20-22, of total employees of (BPS 20-22).
Rented Houses
121. The highest percentage of employees residing in the rented house was those belonged to BPS 1-2 with 16.43% of employees of (BPS 1-2). The second position went to employees belonging to BPS 3-10 with 14.81% of such employees and the least percentage 6.58%, BPS 20-22 of total employees of (BPS 20-22).
Other arrangements
122. The highest percentage of employees having other living arrangements was those which belonged to BPS 1-2 with 46.68% of this class of employees. The second position went to employees belonging to BPS 3-10 with 44.06%. The least percentage in this regard was of the employees belonging to BPS 20-22 with 13.94% of total employees of BPS 20-22.
123. 1,166 civil servants were on waiting list for allotment of Government owned accommodation in accordance with their own statement. Their distribution at Federal and Provincial Capitals was 29.33% at Federal Capital (Islamabad), 11.32% at Provincial Capital (Lahore), 17.58% at Provincial Capital (Karachi), 5.75% at Provincial Capital (Peshawar), 0.94% at Provincial Capital (Quetta), while the remaining, 35.08% were on other stations.
The provincial Government has no legal obligation to provide residential accommodation to any
Government servant. And no government servant has any has any vested legal right or claim to the allotment of government owned residential accommodation.
The allotment of government owned residential accommodation will be made on the principle of first come first served basis in accordance with the list maintained by the Estate office referred to in para-9 (Annexure)
Allotment of Accommodation:
Quota for allotment of residential accommodation at a station will be distributed in the following age in all categories:-
a) Essential (non-pooled) and essential =70%
b) Semi Essential =15%
c) Non 'Essential=15%
Within the same category, the allotment shall be made on the first come first serve basis (for which priority registers shall be maintained by the respective cost centers) (Annexure)
Punjab Government Servants Housing Foundation Report
The Punjab Government Servants Housing Foundation was established as a body corporate under the Act X of 2004 of the Punjab provincial assembly to introduce schemes for providing houses on no profit no loss basis to the member government servants on their retirement or to their families in case of death during services as per entitlement seniority. By an amendment in the Act ibid on 5.1.2013, now houses or plots may be collected to the members depending upon their option on the basis of entitlement seniority.
Progress on Development Activities ETC
The board of directors, Punjab Government Servants Housing Foundation has approved establishment of housing schemes at Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Multan, D.G Khan, Bahawalpur, Sialkot, Khanewal, Sahiwal, Gujranwala and Sargodha. Land Bank comprising 15221 kanal of land (approximately) has already been created for the purpose. Five schemes at Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Multan and D.G Khan have been launched so far. Details regarding no. of plots planned status of completion of infrastructure development works/construction in houses of the schemes are as under:-

Dowall (2006) states that the well-functioning urban land and housing markets they are critical success factors for achieving robust economic growth. It provides an overview of urban land and housing market performance in Punjab Province of Pakistan. It describes the characteristics of well-functioning markets and argues that the Punjab's present markets are not performing adequately. In fact, there exists a range of impediments to efficient urban land and housing market performance: excessive public land ownership, inadequate infrastructure services, weak property rights, pervasive public- and private-sector rent seeking, counter-productive urban planning policies and regulations, costly sub-division and construction regulations, limited financing for property development and acquisition, rent controls and inadequate property-tax-based revenue-generating mechanisms. It concludes by suggesting that a prioritized comprehensive reform agenda is needed to improve urban land and housing market performance in Punjab Province. The analytical and conceptual approach used to research this paper is based on standard neo-classical economics.
According to Balchin (2013) Housing Policy in Europe provides a comprehensive introduction to the economic, political and social issues of housing across the continent. The changing policy and practice of housing in fifteen countries from across Northern, Western, Southern and Central Europe is described, analyzed and compared. It explains why different systems of tenure are dominant in different groups of countries, and the extent to which housing policies within these countries conform to different welfare systems. It reveals how owner-occupation has taken over from social housing as the chosen system of tenure and how this reflects a political and economic shift, from social democracy or communism to neo-liberalism across Europe.
Barlow (2011) states that housing is defined under a welfare country constitution as a fundamental human right, it is understandable that government focuses significant time and expense on establishing human settlements intended to redress the historically unequal distribution of wealth and resources. It is concerned with looking at why, in spite of this attention, the government has underperformed in delivering low income housing projects that evolve into socially sustainable and integrated communities. Since there is no substantial evidence that comprehensive study of the consolidation of human settlements has been done in a well fare state such as South Africa, it includes three settlements and social housing projects developed during the Apartheid regime and three settlements established after the 1994 democratic elections, permits comparisons to be drawn and so facilitates a deeper understanding of the successes and failures of the creation of sustainable housing settlements it says that in the Apartheid settlements inhabitants are using their housing units as an invaluable asset to improve their living conditions and to create a sustainable environment. However, in the settlements developed by the post Apartheid regime, inhabitants are struggling to use their home as an asset to improve their living conditions and to create a convenient and sustainable environment. Consequently, poverty, social exclusion and vulnerability of the beneficiaries of low-cost housing are deepening. While this does not justify the Apartheid policy of enforced removals or the subsequent social evils, the sense of ownership that ensued from forcing inhabitants to their rafter pay for their dwelling based on a calculated proportion of household income, is key to understanding this disparity. All social housing settlements have long term viability issues and so replicating any model is problematic. The future, legislators and policy makers look towards cultivating mixed use housing settlements centered on vibrant commercial, business and retail sites with connecting public transit and pedestrian networks, and various tenure options. It attempts to emphasize the discrepancies that exist in the implementation of social housing schemes and the multifarious problems faced by the residents.

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