Water Transportation Sector In Ahmedabad

The following research work aims to highlight the problems ailing the water transportation sector in Ahmedabad. It relies upon extensive review of secondary data, people's observations about the ferry system recorded through primary surveys, focus group discussions and perception studies to suggest feasible measures towards addressing those problems.
This study has analysed successful inland waterway transportation systems in Ahmadabad (Gujarat). Further, it assessed the feasibility of IWT within the Sabarmati River tread corridor. The address the potential benefits of IWT in India and other country as identified review, the challenges and the limiting factors which have inhibited its development to date, and examines the differences between IWT development in the India and other country, where IWT is a small but rapidly growing and successful sector of certain freight network. Based on the analysis and findings, the study concludes that IWT has sufficient landside infrastructure in place or pending to resume service almost immediately. The study also highlights the resiliency factors associated with inland waterway transportation at local, state and national level.
The report presents an overview of the Sabarmati River waterway network and the current market situation, and zeroes in on the future developments and related market opportunities for the inland waterway transport community in the area of the RTO to PALDI in Sabarmati River basin. In the final section of the report, several recommendations are presented that form an answer on the question of how firms can benefit from the market opportunities that arise from the developments in the inland waterway transport sector of the Sabarmati River basin.

The Sabarmati river is located on the Ahmedabad city in Gujarat. The total length of Sabarmati is 12km from Paldi to RTO. It has historically been the ancient trade gateway to the Narmada canal which were revered by the traders for the spices it produced. It is, by all accounts, the commercial and industrial area of Ahmedabad. Blessed with natural beauty and good climate, the city also boasts of good road, rail and air connectivity with other Indian metropolises such as Mumbai, Chennai and Bengalooru. The development of Ahmedabad has been mainly on account of the political, administrative and commercial importance it has enjoyed over the centuries. The discovery of the ancient port of Muziris1 has confirmed the importance of ancient Ahmedabad as a major link on the maritime circuit for trade and business. There are many evidences of trade links between several locations. It is also well connected by the student due to well education area of Gujarat.

Figure 1: Satellite view of Sabarmati river
Inland Water Transport (IWT) is an economic, fuel efficient, environmental friendly and a low cost transport mode. This mode includes natural waterways such as navigable rivers and artificial ones such as canals. The major advantage of waterways from the point of view of transport is that it offers less resistance to traction at reasonable speeds than other modes. The cost of maintenance is low as the channels are almost natural. Moreover, these waterway channels are often multipurpose ones and hence it is much cheaper to move goods on them. However, this mode is subject to geographical constraints and operates at relatively low speed. It is not possible to create a major waterway for transport without the basic pre-requisites provided by nature. A basic consideration is the depth that determines the types of vessels that can use the channel and their capacity to handle traffic. Also important are the gradients of the channels as well as the width of the waterway (Sriraman, 2002, Brahma,2006).
The economic advantages of this mode compared to other surface modes have been emphasised by a number of high-powered Committees including the National Transport Policy Committee (NTPC) (GOI, 1980), the Steering Committee on Transport Planning (GOI, 1987) and a number of Reports and studies (NCAER, 1974, UNDP, 1993, Rao and Kumar, 1996). Some of these studies also pointed out the role that this mode could perform to take care of other objectives like providing access to far- flung areas and the maintenance of ecological balance. In fact, Rao and Kumar (1996) found that the cost of movement by this mode turned out to be Rs.0.37 per tonne kilometer when compared to Rs.0.96 by road and Rs.0.50 by rail.
Inland waterways have played an important role in the Indian transport system since ancient times. However, in the decades after independence, the importance of this mode of transport has declined considerably with the expansion of road and rail transport. In addition, diversion of river water for irrigation has also reduced the importance of inland water transport. The decline is also due to deforestation of hill ranges leading to erosion, accumulation of silt in rivers and failure to modernize the fleet to suit local conditions. It has increasingly been recognized that while in the past IWT has been used to provide terminal-to-terminal movement, a more integrated approach to the inclusion of IWT within an intermodal transport system with efficient connections to railways and roads could provide the key to the development of sustainable transport that captures the best aspect of each mode of transport while providing door-to-door services. Only such an inter-model system could provide an efficient network of inland transportation. In other words, there is a growing realizationthat an optimal mix of road, rail and inland water transport will provide an efficient transport infrastructure with mobility, flexibility and cost effectiveness. Even from a policy perspective, while the thrust so far has been in developing road and rail sectors, the Government of India has recognized the need to actively promote the IWT sector for it to take a reasonable share in the inter-modal mix of inland transport.
It is against this background that an attempt has been made in this Paper to understand the various issues that are involved in Government playing a more pro-active role in promotion of the IWT mode with a view to providing some long-term guidelines for policy making and implementation.

1.1- Impediments to the Growth of IWT
'Insufficient depths throughout the stretch of navigable waters
'Excessive siltation in major rivers from erosion of uplands and deforestation
'Navigation being relegated to the fourth position due to priorities to drinking
water, irrigation and power (hydel) sectors that results in reduced draft
'Non availability of low draft high technology vessels
'Non availability of adequate navigational aids resulting in restricted sailing
over long periods of time
'Non-availability of permanent terminals with adequate infrastructure for
loading /unloading, storage etc.
'Non availability of bulk commodities along the water front
'Non availability of return cargo on most of the routes

1.2-Advantages of IWT
'Low capital cost
Cost of development of inland waterway has been estimated to be a mere 5-10 percent of the cost of developing an equivalent 4-lane highway or railway.
'Low maintenance cost
Cost of maintenance of inland waterway is placed at 20 percent of that of roads.
'Low fuel cost
Inland Water Transport is a highly fuel-efficient mode of transport. This fact is borne out by the estimate that one litre of fuel can move 24 tonne-km of freight by road, 85 by rail and 105 by IWT.

IWT in IndiaChapter-2

NW-1: Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly River System
The majority of the traffic on NW-1 is centred around the inland water port of Kolkata. The traditional base of commercial operations, the barge owners, the CIWTC and the major shipyards and repair facilities are all based in Kolkata. There is some potential for project-based movement of construction material on stretches of the Ganga upstream.

The major problem that barge operators report, including CIWTC, is the non-availability of sufficient draft to operate vessels of sufficient size in an economical manner. Traffic appears to be a secondary concern although because of years of decline in the sector, it is difficult to identify a driving commodity that will sustain the investments in this area. As of now, the private sector is not investing in new barges and the number has declined in the last few years. CIWT C, the largest operator, has submitted a revival package encompassing several dimensions of assets, staffing and technology.

Figure 2: NW-1: Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly River System
The region has a long history of barge building and maintenance, but the existing facilities, including the CIWTC operated Rajabagan dockyard are not modern and productive as per the standards that the sector requires. There are some improvements in the sector, including the performance of Rajabagan Dockyard (reported by CIWTC) and introduction of fixed schedule operations to gain the confidence of shippers and customers and some new potential traffic, including international trade with Bangladesh.

NW-2: River Brahmaputra
National waterway 2 is the Brahmaputra system from Dibrugarh in Assam to Dhubri on the Bangladesh border and also in Assam. The waterway is entirely in Assam. There are a large number of tributaries of the Brahmaputra, which are also potentially navigable. There is sufficient evidence to show that the Brahmaputra was in fact provided the major mode of conveyance for freight and passenger transport in the region well into the 1900s.

Figure 3: NW-2: River Brahmaputra
Today, the Brahmaputra carries some freight, but only a small part of the freight traffic carried in the region. This reflects a country-wide shift in all of India from erstwhile viable inland water modes to other modes over the years.

In the case of the Brahmaputra, the concerns of draft availability and the competing uses of water per se, are less than similar concerns in NW-1. A major reason for declining traffic in NW-2 is that the through connection with the Ganga system and mainland India has been lost because of the creation of Bangladesh and also the Farakka barrage. An unfortunate consequence of this in the 1970s was that barge operators could not operate through services and in fact had to effectively abandon some of their vessels in the Brahmaptura as there was not sufficient traffic there and no passage to bring the vessels to the Kolkata area or other areas where they could have been deployed. Even today, the movement of Indian vessels in Bangladesh (and vice versa) is governed by a protocol negotiated between the two governments and renewed every so often. This type of business risk retarded the development of IWT in the region. It is only now that there are signs of Bangladesh opening up its waters for more commerce and barge operators from other regions are considering investments in the area.
The problem of water availability in NW-2 is of a different nature than in NW-1. The Brahmaputra is subject to severe flooding and changing of course at many points. Although the river is sufficiently wide in its entire course from Dibrugarh to Dhubri, it has eroded the banks at many places and does not form a channel of sufficient depth in many places. In a related phenomenon, the river island of Majuli (the largest riverine island in the world) is shrinking year by year because of bank erosion.

The north-east region (the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland) has severe constraints in transport infrastructure, as far as rail and road are concerned. This is largely because both those modes have to pass through a narrow stretch of land on a circuitous route as far as the main route from Kolkata is concerned. Rail is now served by two single lines up to Guwahati. Road infrastructure is qualitatively better in recent years but is still insufficient to meet the needs of the region. The area is comparatively non-industrialized and therefore relies on imports and shipments from other parts of India for the majority of industrial goods (cement, iron and steel, machinery etc.) The major shipments out of the region are coal from Mizoram, tea, jute and some other agri products.

Apart from the Brhamaputra system, the other riverine system is that of the Barak (Surma) river. This too had a big role to play in transport in the region, again relying on connectivity through (present-day) Bangladesh at Karimganj. This provided good access to commercially important centres like Agartala in Tripura. But today, the Barak river system is effectively navigable only for 6 months of the year and the through traffic through Bangladesh is again governed by the uncertain protocol arrangements with that country.

The major organized player in the region is the Assam government directorate of Inland Water Transport, under the ministry of Transport. Because of a historical legacy of riverine maritime activity, there is plenty of expertise in barge building, operation and maintenance in the region. The government department also operates its services in NW 1 and in fact has a fleet in operation larger than many players who are based in that region. It is one of the specialized carriers of Over-Dimensioned Cargo.

The Directorate of Inland Water Transport in Assam runs about 75 ferry services in the state. There are private operators too. The extent of traffic has been estimated in 2003-04, only for the government run services as about 24 million passengers and 7.33 lakh metric tons of freight on the ferry services across rivers (mostly the Brahmaputra and the Barak and their tributaries) and about 6 lakh passengers and 57,000 metric tons on long distance ferry services almost entirely on the Brahmaputra.

There appears to be potential for growth in the freight carried by IWT, in a number of commodities such as coal, bitumen and other petroleum products, cement, fertilizer, and food grains as per estimates prepared by the government, but this traffic has not emerged yet in any significant way.

The area of tourism related IWT has seen growth in recent years, with cruises and other types of launches on the Brahmaputra. The most profitable ones are charter vessels run by foreign tour operators, with vessels leased from the government.
NW-3: West-coast Canal along with Champakkara and Udyogmandal Canals
National Waterway 3 in Kerala is the smallest of the three national waterways. It is made up largely of coastal backwaters of the Arabian Sea. A large part of this backwater, adjoining the Kuttanad region of Kottayam and Alappuzha districts, has developed a lifestyle that involves multiple use of the waters. A system of gates from both the north (Thanneermukkom) and the south (Trikkunapuzha) controls the extent of salt water that is maintained in the Vembanadlake (of which a large channel is designated as the national waterway) and the waters are used both for prawn cultivation and fishing as well as for rice growing.

Figure 4: NW-3: West-coast Canal along with Champakkara and Udyogmandal Canals
There is evidence that water based transport was historically an important, even predominant mode of movement in the past. For many islands in the Vembanadlake, and islands such as Vypeen, off Cochin, water based movements were the only mode for a long time, to transport everything from fresh water to food to construction materials and for trade. Even now, fresh water supply to some islands is done by barge.

Today, there is some movement by water, but with a huge increase in road connectivity and bridges, the primacy of water movement is a thing of the past. In the Cochin area, with the three part Goshree bridges, the islands of Bolghatty, Vypeen and Vallarpadam are connected to the mainland by road, which has already had a big impact on passenger ferry services to those islands. In other areas, the number of passenger routes has declined from about 100 ten years ago to about 30 now.

Apart from commuter movements and local trade through water based transport, there are two other aspects of water based transport that need to be discussed: freight movements and tourism related activities. The major tonnage of freight movement in Kerala is to and from Cochin port to a few industries in the vicinity.
FACT accounts for the large part of this traffic, with two factories on two canals off the main waterway, but which are also considered part of the National Waterway 3, namely the Champakkara canal and the Udyogamandal canal. Raw materials for these fertilizer plants (sulphur, rock phosphate, phosphoric acid and furnace oil) forms the major part of barge movements on NW-3. The other occasional user is Binani for moving zinc. The current rates for these movements (Cochin port to Udyogamandal and Ambalamugal are Rs 55/Ton, which are just enough to cover operating costs of the barges. The movement is possible because FACT has invested in barge handling facilities at both ends, a long time ago.

In earlier days, ammonia gas used to be transported by tanker barges, which is now discontinued. Interestingly, in the past, finished goods from FACT were also transported by barge from the factories to distribution points in Kerala, especially in Kottayam, Alappuzha, Ernakulam and Kollam districts. The barge loading facility is still there, and chute loading is possible at Udyogamandal. These were carried by contractors in 30-40 T country boats upto about 1993. This is viewed as a viable size of shipment even now (compared to 10 Ton trucks), but these operators are no longer present. Carrying sand or converting to houseboats is an option for these vessels. Champakara, Allepey, Chingavanam, Kottayam, Kayankulam, Chenganassery, Aluva and Kaladi are possible locations even today.

NW-4: Kakinada-Puducherry Canal System integrated with Rivers Godavari and Krishna
National Waterway 4 (NW-4) is a 1,095 kilometres (680 mi) long waterway in India. It has been declared as an Indian National Waterway and is currently under development. It connects the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and the union territory ofPuducherry. The NW-4 runs along the Coromandal Coast through Kakinada, Eluru,Commanur, Buckingham Canals and also through part of Krishna and Godavari rivers in South India. It was declared a National Waterway on 24 November 2008 under the Provisions of National Waterways Bill, 2006.

It is being developed by the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI), and is scheduled for completion in 2013.

NW-5: East Coast Canal integrated with River Brahmani and Mahanadi delta rivers
The Orissa government will urge the Planning Commissionfor including the Rs 3,800-crore mega inland water transport project along the east coast canal and Brahmani-Kharsua river system under the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-17).
'The project has already been declared a national waterway and it is unfortunate that the state did not receive any funding from the Centre under the 11th Plan. The state Chief Secretary will now write to the Planning Commission for approving the project under the 12th Plan,' a top official source told Business Standard.
The project was declared National Waterway 5 (NW-5) by the Government of India on November 25, 2008. The NW-5 includes east coast canal integrated with Brahmani and Mahanadi delta river system.

Figure 6: NW-5: East Coast Canal integrated with River Brahmani and Mahanadi
The waterway includes the Talcher-Dhamara stretch of Brahmani river, Geonkhali-Charbatia stretch of East Coast Canal, Charbatia-Dhamara stretch of Matai river and Mangalgadi-Paradip stretch of Mahanadi delta rivers spanning 588 km. According to detailed project report prepared by Water & Power Consultancy Services (India) Ltd- WAPCOS, river portion of the waterway is 371 km with the canal portion being 217 km.

The project was scheduled to be completed in eight years. Coal from Talcher to Dhamara and Paradip ports is the most important potential cargo for this waterway. It is estimated in the DPR that about 11 million tonnes of cargo can be transported per year after the development of this waterway which can go up to 23 million tonnes per annum in the next 1 years.

The proposed waterway has been categorized into three stretches - Talcher to Mangalgadi (237 km), Dhamara to Paradip (95 km) and Dhamara to Geonkhali (256 km). The Brahmani, Kharsua and Mahanadi river system mainly constitutes the river portion to be developed for the proposed waterway.

The waterway passes through major towns like Talcher, Paradip and Dhamara in the river section and Bhadrak, Balasore, Jaleswar and Haldia in the canal section.
Besides key minerals like coal and iron ore, agricultural products like paddy, rice, jute coconut and fish products as well as finished goods and manufactured like fertilizers, cement, sugar, salt, asbestos sheets and textiles are likely to use this waterway.

NW-6: Bhanga to Lakhipur in Assam
Declaration of Barak river from Bhanga to Lakhipur(121 km) in the State of Assam as National Waterway is under consideration of Govt.

River Barak originates from Patkari range of Manipur at an elevation of 2440 mts. The river flows through Manipur, Manipur-??Mizoram and Manipur-Assam border and then along Assam and then finally enters into Bangladesh. Out of the total length of 900 kms of the river, 564 kms is in the Indian territory. The IWT route through Bangladesh is open for navigation under the Indo??-Bangladesh Protocol which facilitates movement of IWT vessels up to Karimganj and Silchar.Hydrographic surveys carried out in the river route have shown feasibility of extension of this river route up to Lakhipur. Since this IWT route serves a vital transportation linkage to the North Eastern states, it is proposed to develop the river and also to improve the navigational facilities in the Protocol route leading to Karimganj during the 9th Five Year Plan.

Figure 7: NW-6: Bhanga to Lakhipur in Assam

National Waterways (NW-6)
Location India
Length 121 km (75 mi)
North end Lakhipur
South end Bhanga
Owner Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI)
Operator Central Inland Water Transport Corporation (CIWTC)

The transport sector is a major contributor to climate change. It is considered to be currently responsible of 23 % to 25 % of world energy-related GHG emissions (InternationalEnergyAgency (2009)),ofwhich65% originates from road transport and 23 % from rail, domestic aviation and waterways (Chapman (2007)). Given current trends, transport energy use and CO2 emissions are projected to increase by nearly 50 % by 2030 and more than 80 % by 2050.

In light of the above facts and projections, it is not surprising that the topic of 'transport and climate change' has already been extensively reviewed in several reports on top of being widely discussed in the peer-reviewed scienti'c literatures.
First, the chapter 'Transport and its infrastructure'(Ribeiroetal. (2007))ofthecontributionofthe Working Group 3 to the Fourth IPCC Assessment Re- port, presents a detailed status, from the present and future energy consumption from the various trans- port modes (see 'gure 2) to the trends in car owner ship.

Second, the International Energy Agency (IEA) provides a multitude of reports of interests and collects a wide range of data of interest. Among recent publications, International Energy Agency (2009) discusses the prospects for shifting more travel to the most e'cient modes and reducing travel growth rates, improving vehicle fuel e'ciency by up to 50% using cost-e'ective, incremental technologies, and moving toward electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels to achieve a more secure and sustainable transport future.

Thirdly, the European Environment Agency under- takes annually a broad review of the transport and the environment. The latest report (European Energy Agency (2009))presentsaratherdarkpicture of the environmental impacts of deals with transport and its impact on the recent evolution of environmental impacts of the transport sector in Europe.
Finally, the Stern Review (Stern (2006))in it's annex 7.a also presents the current status and future business as usual projections of transport of trans- port relates GHG emissions based on similar sources as the IPCC AR4.

A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken for the project. The literature search focussed on UK data sources, however suitable overseas studies have also been included. As discussed in Section 2.3 the valuation studies are recorded in a literature matrix. Appendix B presents the structure of the literature matrix and a description of the information it contains. Appendix C provides the detailed literature review. This Section summarises and analyses the literature reviewed in Appendix C.

The literature review covered both economic welfare studies and economic impact studies. As noted in Section 1.2.2 there are fundamental differences between these two types of assessments and data from an economic impact assessment cannot necessarily be used in a CBA, as CBA looks at all costs and benefits from a welfare perspective.

This section focuses on the welfare valuation literature reviewed. It discusses the number of available studies and the general quality of those studies and why some studies are not suitable for use within the framework. For each category of services (provisioning, regulating and cultural) this Section focuses on the benefit values provided in the framework.

Traffic has been steadily dropping: the inter-country level has gone down from 100,000 tons per year in 1995-96 was barely 20,000 tons in 1999-2000. In addition, of the 230 listed vessels in Pandu (Guwahati), only 50 are in working condition. These factors have to be reviewed, for the Brahmaputra is a natural, 365-day highway which needs far less maintenance expenses and running costs than either the road or the rail sectors.
Traffic has been steadily dropping: the inter-country level has gone down from 100,000 tons per year in 1995-96 was barely 20,000 tons in 1999-2000. In addition, of the 230 listed vessels in Pandu (Guwahati), only 50 are in working condition. These factors have to be reviewed, for the Brahmaputra is a natural, 365-day highway which needs far less maintenance expenses and running costs than either the road or the rail sectors.

For transporting food grain, it costs
Rs. 1.50 per ton/per km carried on the railways,
Rs. 1.20 per ton/per km carried on the roads,
Rs. 0.90 per ton/km carried on the waterways.

Surveys have been done in past reports, of other countries where inland waterways have been successfully used and continue to be used. In the region, UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) publications on IWT give brief comparative pictures of India, Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Thailand and the Mekong river system. Published policy overviews on IWT also discuss measures such as standardisation of navigation rules and modernization strategies through this forum. An initiative taken by Japan attempts to consolidate the knowledge base and facilitate exchanges of good practices on IWT.

IWT experience across the world is varied and offers interesting comparisons. What follows is an indicative set of observations.

A significant fraction (about 35%) of the freight movement in the country is by IWT because of the geography of the region. Riverine ports are quite well developed and competing modes (rail and road) are not as developed in comparative terms.
IWT is next to road in share of freight carried (about 20 million tons). Passenger movement in and around Bangkok is significant, with different types of services, including express services
North America:
Freight movements on the Great Lakes and the Mississippi continue to be important modes. Leisure activities based on water movement are quite common. The Transportation Research Board publishes studies on a variety of aspects of IWT in North America and elsewhere.
IWT is estimated to carry about 7 per cent (and growing) of freight traffic in those EU states. In the EU states with waterways, this proportion is 12 % overall and it account for more than 40% of ton-km in some regions [European Commission, 2001]. River training and use of rivers and canals for a variety of purposes has been common for a number of years. IWT is seen as a complementary mode of transport, and offers another option as part of the environmental impacts of different modes of transport and the increasing role of multi- modal transport and containerization. The current challenges are safety and the development of information systems to harmonize IWT traffic across Europe.

The navigable inland waterways in China total more than 100,000 kilometers and there are a large number of inland port facilities with berths for large vessels. IWT accounts for almost 10 per cent of the total freight tonnage carried in the country, and of that, two thirds is carried on the Yangtze river (including commodities like coal, steel, cement, containers and LPG). In particular, many steel mills are located along the Yangtze river and use barges for transport of material. The downstream part of the river carries barges up to 10000 T capacity. Barges move on the river for more than 3000 km, but a shift in priorities is reflected in the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, which is a 370 mile long reservoir and which will now involve a system of locks which barges will have to traverse. The full impact of this on river traffic is not yet clear. In fact, navigability of the river upstream and downstream may actually improve with the controlled flow of water that the dam provides.

3.1- Literature Review and Evaluation
Literature was initially gathered from Jacobs' in-house library of environment valuation studies and from publically available sources and journals. In addition, key stakeholders and potential data users were contacted in order to identify relevant grey literature sources. An email request for data was also circulated on the RESECON list server, which is a global email list of resource economists. While the focus of the literature search was on UK data sources, as far as possible the search also identified suitable studies from overseas.

The literature collated covers:
'The academic literature on benefits transfer (BT) in order to draw out best practice in benefits transfer, pitfalls and limitations and to help develop an approach for evaluating the valuation studies for the purpose of this project; and,
'Valuation studies, covering both economic welfare studies and Economic Impact Assessments, in order to determine the best transfer values.

3.2- Benefits Transfer Methodology
Based on a review of the academic literature a four step approach to BT was set out for the project, as described below. This sets out the ideal approach to be applied; however given limitations in the literature available and the detail provided within some literature sources, it was not always possible to fully implement this approach for all benefits.


Of all the policies in force regarding water transportation, the two important policies are:
' The Inland Water Transport Policy, 2001
' The National Urban transport policy, 2006.

4.1. The Inland Water Transport Policy

The Inland Water Transport Policy (IWTP), 2001 was prepared by the Union government with the core objective of developing the inland waterway transportation sector into an attractive alternative for road transportation wherever possible. It encouraged the bringing in of private participation into the realm of infrastructure provision and maintenance with significant contributions from the government reduced to around 40 percent in Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) projects.

' The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) incorporated as a result of the 1985 IWAI act was permitted to raise bonds to raise money in order to fund its projects.

' The IWAI was also permitted to enter into joint ventures with interested private entities in order to take up infrastructure development projects in the inland water transportation sector. The government would limit its exposure to equity funding and would not involve itself in raising debt sources to finance the project and it would fall under the private entity's scope. Additional subsidies or grants from the government would also not be entertained.

' In case of BOT projects the maximum ceiling fixed for the government's participation shall stand and such projects shall be developed in consultation with the Planning Commission.

' Having granted the status of infrastructure to Inland Waterways, 100 percent tax exemption, as in the case of National Highways, shall be accorded for fixed period of time to the agencies involved.

' Section 14 of the IWAI act empowers the authority to set up infrastructure for this purpose. Section 17 of the Act permits the authority to levy fees and user charges at rates fixed in consultation with the Central Government.

The IWTP, therefore, lays down the roadmap for proceeding with projects concerning inland water transportation of goods and people. It recognizes that the government by itself is incapable of providing all the infrastructure required for giving IWT a push. Therefore, it encourages private sector participation in the sector for infrastructure provision, which is keeping in line how other infrastructure is being perceived in the country by policymakers.

4.2. The National Urban Transport Policy

The National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP), 2006 was prepared by the Union government with the intention of guiding the development of sustainable urban transportation systems in the country. This was in response to the realization that our cities are ill-equipped to meet the mobility-needs of the burgeoning urban and immigrant population. The vision statement of the NUTP recognized the fact that the people occupy centre-stage in cities and aimed at transforming our cities into engines of economic growth. It aims at helping our cities evolve into an urban form that is best suited to their unique geography. The objectives of the NUTP are to ensure safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable and sustainable access to jobs, education, recreation and such other needs within our cities by:

' Incorporating urban transportation as an important parameter at the urban planning stage.

' Encouraging integrated landuse and transportation.

' Improving access of business to markets and factors of production.

' Encouraging greater use of public transport and Non-motorized Transport (NMT).

' Encouraging focus on multi-modal public transport systems with seamless travel across modes.

' Establishing effective regulatory mechanisms for management of transport systems.

It advocated the achievement of its objectives through the following measures:

' Integrating landuse and transportation: This would help channel the city's growth along pre-identified channels, thereby controlling the urban sprawl.

' Encouraging public transport: This would help control the congestion on city roads and also bring down pollution levels. Here, the policy stretched on developing sustainable mass transportation systems with government participation including the use of available waterways. Comprehensive city mobility plans would be encouraged and private transportation would be discouraged. Regulatory authorities shall be set up to control pricing and quality.

' Adopting suitable technologies: It was understood that no one solution would fit the needs of all cities uniformly. Therefore, each city was to identify the solution that would suit it most on basis of its character and needs. Cities like ahmedabad, which have an abundance of waterways could explore the possibility of a waterway-based transport system. Several modes of transport may co-exist in a city and be woven together to form an multi-modal transportation system. There shall be seamless integration between these various modes.

' Financing the projects: The projects shall be financed through public-private participation with the government pitching in to fill the viability gap alone. Once the system is put in place, the users themselves will have to bear the operational and maintenance expenditure. Funds shall be raised through development charges and dedicated taxes. Realizing the commercial value of locked-in land shall be encouraged.

' Administration of such projects shall be managed by the setting up of Urban Metropolitan Transportation Agencies (UMTA).

' Parking areas shall be encouraged and on-street parking slots shall be at a premium.

' Freight traffic shall be routed through the exterior regions of the cities through by-passes.

The NUTP, therefore, strongly advocates the development and use of indigenous and sustainable modes of transport such as the ferry system since they would help in reducing the dependence of the public on the already clogged roads, besides being low on expenditure relating to setting-up and maintenance. It also propagates the adoption of technologies that are best suited to the city's geographical traits. In the case of Sabarmati river ahm, where a large part of the city has easier access to a waterway than a road or a rail-link, it would be natural to encourage a water-based transportations system over any other mode.

Transportation in AhmedabadChapter-5

Options for public transport in Ahmedabad are fairly limited. There are no inner city train services, trams or metro systems that operate around the city, meaning visitors here rely on private taxis mostly and occasionally buses.

Taxis take the form of the classic Indian auto-rickshaws seen all over the country, three-wheeled vehicles that are almost always painted yellow and green with space for three passengers in the back. The main problem facing international passengers is that most drivers don't speak English so it pays to know where you are going. Car taxis are available but can't be flagged down in the street. The best way to arrange one is to ask your hotel to call for one. Ahmedabad's private transport also includes what are locally known as qualis. These SUV-taxis are often a good option for tourists as they are more comfortable then the standard rickshaw and many of the drivers are able to speak English well. These taxis can be hired for just about any period you may wish to use them, so make sure to bargain hard when negotiating a fee.

Buses are perhaps the most economical and fun way to travel, but present numerous challenges to the casual tourist. During rush hours they can get very busy on popular routes and destinations are posted in Gujarati only.

There existed three transport services viz. ABC Co. (Amdavad Bus Corporation), Morris Transport and Munshi Bus service, before the municipal bus service. There was a shortage of petrol till 1946 due to the Second World War and the petrol supply was in limited quantity even in 1947 when the municipal bus service started. Coal gas was used as a fuel earlier in the buses and many buses were plying on gas. There were approximately 50,000 commuters who travelled in such buses. Morris company operated some 32 bus routes in the city. The buses ran on Gandhi Road, and Relief Road from Bhadra in the city area. There were clockwise and anti-clockwise routes running from Shahpur to Shahpur. Moreover, there were other routes for Shahibaug, Dudheshwar, Vadaj, Sabarmati and Calico Mills outside the city area. There were buses for Asarva, Khokhara-Mehmdabad, Gomtipur, Amraiwadi and Maninagar in the eastern area, while Paldi, Vasna, Ambawadi and Commerce College routes were covered on the western bank of the Sabarmati River. Buses for the Sabarmati area ran from Vadaj.

The first communal riots took place in 1941, and the atmosphere was tense in 1946 also. The buses run by private companies closed down during the emergency period, and hence the citizens felt insecurity and difficulty. The private companies' (Austin andStudebaker) buses were in wretched condition, having wooden seats without sponge, a curse for the commuters, because the profit motive was at the centre for such commercial organizations. Hence the citizens demanded heavily for a public transport service.

5.1- Population of vehicle and human in ahmedabad
Vehicle population grew at double the rate than human population in Ahmedabad
AHMEDABAD: It is the city where the number of vehicles grows faster than humans. With newly-found money and need for speedier transport, the citizens added nearly 14 lakh vehicles between 2001 and 2011, which was the total number of vehicles in the city in 2001. While the vehicles grew at 100% rate, during the same period, the city's population grew at 58%.
At the moment, the city has vehicular population of 31.51 lakh against a population of 65 lakh - meaning every second person owns a vehicle. More than half the vehicles are two-wheelers (19.74 lakh) as 12% of the vehicles consist of privately-owned four-wheelers.

As per the city RTO, everyday 500 vehicles are added to the population of the vehicular traffic. Out of it, 215 are bikes and 60 are cars. Out of cars, 25 are SUVs. A decade ago, the number of vehicles getting registered everyday was below 200.

"It is not just about figures. The commuters would experience the congestion everyday compared to a few years ago. The ever-growing figures put huge pressure on the infrastructure as the city is not at all ready for onslaught of vehicles. Do we have the parking spaces getting made everyday for the new vehicles? Do we have the new roads for the humongous number of vehicles, especially in informal business districts such as CG Road, Ashram Road, SG Road and Relief Road?," asked a city-based road safety expert.

Harshwardhan Modi, RTO, Ahmedabad, said that the population's growth rate has accelerated in the past five years as it adds up more than 20% vehicles every year. From 1.70 lakh new vehicles added in 2009-10, the number of new vehicles in 2011-12 was 2.22 lakh. "With more money, everybody wants to own his or her own vehicle. As far as the city's commuting plan is concerned, an average person rides less than five kilometers everyday. In a way, it also boosts the city's economy," he said.Unlike countries such as Singapore, where there is mandatory cap on the number of total vehicles owned, India is sitting on vehicle population explosion believe many road safety experts. "While we can't stop the new vehicles from coming on the road, what we can do is to strengthen the public transport system and make it more attractive for the commuters taking private vehicle. We also need to redesign the way we plan our cities where there are well-defined business areas with better connectivity," said a city traffic branch official.
Total number of vehicles in Ahmedabad as on December 31, 2013
Type of vehicles Number

Motorcycle 19,74,452

Moped 2,72,393

Autorickshaw 1,52,168

Four wheeler 4,56,778

Truck 36,305

Tempo 52,663

Total 31,51,224

Source: RTO, Ahmedabad

5.2. Water transport on South Gujarat rivers soon

GANDHINAGAR: Passenger boats will soon ferry people and goods across the five perennial rivers of south Gujarat ' Narmada, Tapi, Ambika, Oranga and Purna ' with the state government planning an ambitious inland water transport services project.
The plan, worked out by the Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB), includes providing water transport on 50-km stretch on the Narmada, 25-km stretch on the Tapi, 30-km stretch on the Ambika, 10-km stretch on the Oranga and 14-km stretch on the Purna. Officials say these rivers have considerable depth to run such services.

Among many issues that the study might address, some include, allowing those wanting to start inland water transport to raise tax-free bonds for mobilising funds from market as provided for other infrastructure sectors, to allow commercial and joint ventures to encourage investment in this sector with government equity exposure of the being limited to equity participation, providing build-operate-transfer (BOT) model for private participation for building river terminals, mechanised cargo handling, fairway development, includingdredging.

A similar plan had been worked out in 1981. Small jetties were constructed at different places, including those at Chandod and Bhadbhut on the Narmada, Madvad on the Purna and Randher on the Tapi. The passenger boats were run by the state government, but the plan failed and had to be aborted.

Currently, local passenger boats operate informally between some of these jetties, but officials say, the area has 'greater potential', which is yet to be explored.


Inland Water Transportation is, by all means, the most economical of all modes for transportation of people and cargo. One of the major components of the expenses incurred while providing infrastructure like roads and rail links is the component of land acquisition, rehabilitation and resettlement of the affected and laying of roads. However, in the case of waterways, such expenses are eliminated as the waterways are naturally available and only maintenance costs related to dredging are incurred. The amount of energy spent in manufacturing vessels required for transportation of specific tonnage of cargo or people is far lesser than that spent for developing roads and road carriers or rail and wagons. Besides, the issue of safety is taken care of better in IWT as compared to road or rail transport. The amount of pollution caused by inland vessels is only a fraction of that accounted by road or rail traffic.

6.1- Technological and physical viability
The basic requirements for IWT include water to a minimum depth of 2m that is available all through the year. Depending upon tidal currents, there will be need to ensure that the channel is properly dredged so as to afford the least available depth at all times. Since only forty percent of the available waterways in Kochi are currently considered navigable by motor boats, it is necessary to bring more waterways under this category through dredging depending upon the need and demand for waterway transportation. Similarly, when bridges are constructed over waterbodies, it must be ensured that there is enough clear height for vessels to go under the bridges.

Water flow: The basic prerequisite for water based transport is the availability of water flow. In the main waterways, this may have decreased over the years because of increased usage arising from habitation, industrial and agricultural needs. The extent of regular flow may also have decreased because of the impact of dams on river streams. In Sabarmati River , there are not water flow in whole year but provide water flow In future planning development of Sabarmati Riverfront to make tourism place.
River training, dredging and navigation: The next requirement is that the river is trained and consistently provides a sufficient depth vis-??-vis the draft of the vessels that are expected to ply on it. This is possible for some types of river beds and may require maintenance of banks and dredging of the river bed periodically, to maintain the required depth. Recent cost estimates of river training on Sabarmati river provide a figure of about Rs 10 to 11 crores/km [SRFDCL, 1998] on each bank. In rural areas, the figure could be lower, say Rs 8 to 9 crores/km.

In India, IWAI, in principle, commits to maintaining a year-round draft of 2 m along the National Waterways [Planning Commission, 2001]. This is not found to be the case, in practice. One possibility is that it is strategically justified to provide this draft on appropriate channels, by an assessment of the commercial traffic potential on each waterway. The other option is for operators to plan for a realistic draft of 1.5 m and see if that is operationally viable.

The requirements for navigation are channel markings, night navigational aids, including the possible deployment of GPS and river maps and charts for navigation. The National Inland Navigation Institute in Patna has been set up to oversee this development by the use of appropriate technology.

Locks: The physical drop of the river channel cannot be too much, or else locks have to be provided to manage the height differential. For example, the planned Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze will have five locks for descent [www.travelchinaguide.com].

Access of cargo: The cargo has to be accessible to the waterway at both ends, to ensure door to door movement.

Availability of vessels and associated infrastructure: India has a long history of river based water transport. Among operators, the government owned CIWTC (Central Inland Water Transport Corporation) is the largest owner of vessels and barges. Private operators have a substantial fleet, but have not been investing in new vessels in the last decade. In fact, there has been scrapping vessels of late, and all operators may require some help in reviving them and investing in new vessels. The role of the (government owned) shipyards here is important, including the CIWTC owned and operated Rajabagan Dock Yard in Kolkata. CIWTC can provide repair facilities for other operators in the area as well.

There is a well established industry of manufacture, maintenance and repair of barges in Goa, some of which are operated by mining companies which use barges for transport of ore, and some other organizations. IWT is a sustained economic activity in Goa, and there are many support services available in the state.

6.2- Operational viability
The IWT sector is an investment-sensitive sector. The costs involved are cost of the vessels, fuel costs, crew salaries and maintenance costs. In order to keep the ferry services, assured patronage from the general public is pre-requisite. In most cases, people will opt for ferry services if they have a choice since the ride quality and comfort are better than that offered by road transport. However, last mile connectivity is a major determinant and must be provided for people to travel from the original point of start of trip to the ferry station and from the station to the trip destination. Hence, while cost estimates are prepared for the travel by ferry, the cost of last mile connectivity must also be accounted for. Since, travel cost by waterways is comparatively less and only a fraction of the total money spent towards bridging the last mile gap. Another important factor is the availability of access to feeder networks from the ferry station without getting exposed to the elements of weather. Intermodal coordination and integration is therefore a significant factor.

Costs: IWT is a capital intensive industry, even for operators, as significant investment is required in vessels, for a start. Investments required to provide and maintain the waterway and terminals are of an even higher scale and come under the heading of infrastructure. In today's environment, it is only IWAI which can maintain the waterway and a few large customers (e.g. project based shippers and bulk manufacturers like refineries and steel plants) who can participate in investments for terminals.
Operating costs can be categorized as below.
' Vehicle costs
' Fuel costs
' Crew costs
' Maintenance costs
' Loading Unloading costs

Besides these, there are costs to do with contingencies like running aground and damage to vessels. These are not rare, under current operating conditions of insufficient draft, even in the National Waterways.
Systems perspectives: A detailed study emphasizing the systems perspective in analyzing the IWT mode is presented in a companion research paper by the authors [Raghuram and Rangaraj, 2005]. This study draws on illustrative examples from the Goa scenario and typical freight operations over multiple destinations in NW-1 and highlights the principles of supply chain management and the possible use of network flow models and scheduling models for analysis. Also proposed is a model for identifying the range of viable operation from the point of view of
(a) the competitive fare provided by other modes,
(b) the size of barge and therefore the operating cost
(c) the desired throughput and
(d) the total cost to the customer (and therefore a price that can be charged).

Fleet planning: Barge operations rely on economies of scale in movement, as fixed costs of the vessel (barge) and crew are quite high. The trade offs here are as follows: Larger barges have more draft and require a larger water depth, but have lower operating costs. For customers, the lower freight costs are offset by higher inventory staging costs. The barge size is also limited by the throughput consideration, as large barges may have operating restrictions and small barges may cause too much congestion in handling the required traffic. This leads to an operating range of sizes and related costs that are incurred and therefore the prices offered to customers.

Scheduling: Two types of schedules are possible in transport operations. Fixed schedule movements (which provide for more certainty for customers, makes vehicle deployment easy and where operational costs are more controlled) and variable schedules (which provide for more responsiveness and can reduce unremunerative runs). CIWTC operates both types of services [CIWTC, 2004]. In NW-1 and 2, it is the only operator that has a large enough fleet to be able to attempt fixed schedule movements.

Summary of operational viability: From the analysis of operations in NW-1 and the Goa iron ore movements by barge, it becomes clear that barge economics is a capital and scale intensive activity. The preferred barge size in the NW-1 sector seems to be about 750 T, given an optimistic view of the draft that is available (when sufficient draft is not available, the vessel has to be operate below capacity). In Goa, the preferred size is now about 1500 T and 2000 T barges are also operated. This is viable, given the volumes of cargo and also the efficient loading and unloading practices, which allow for good barge utilization. In NW-1, one may have to consider smaller barge sizes with more valuable commodities. Here, since the servicing requirements are likely to be higher than what IWT can offer, a big market is doubtful initially. Agri-export is one possibility and the other is project related activity, both of which have some volume potential.

6.3- Commercial viability
The commercial viability of the IWT is based greatly on the apparent advantages that using the waterways has on the other modes available to the users. Within KCR, there are obvious advantages of using the waterways since there is a natural grid iron pattern of waterways. As a result of this and geographical limitations for roads, travel by waterways works out to be easier and thus preferable for the average user.

6.4- Cost of development
The cost of development of waterways is comparatively lesser than that required for the development of road or rail infrastructure. Studies have concluded that development of waterways takes only about ten percent of the cost required to develop roadways. Similarly the costs associated with maintenance for waterways is only about twenty percent of that required for roadways. In terms of efficiency of transportation, it has been found that IWT is far more fuel-efficient than transportation by roads or railways. One litre of fuel can move 24 tonne-km of cargo by road, 85 tonne-km by rail and 105 tonne-km by waterways. This assumes all the more importance in the wake of economy and environment concerns that govern the global discourse on transportation currently. Considering the fact that land acquisition is a tedious affair in Kerala, the importance of using the IWT assumes even morsignificance. Through detailed calculations, it has been established that the cost of developing IWT in KCR would take around 434 crore rupees, considering a dredging cost of two lakh rupees per thousand cubic metres. In contrast the cost of constructing flyovers at major intersections amounts to 7289 crore rupees and the provision of widened roads at 2001 rates would come to 7384 crore rupees (Traffic and Transportation Study for Cochin City, NATPAC, 2008). All these figures tilt the balance overwhelmingly in favour of IWT over other modes.

6.5- Other issues
Role of agencies: In India, a number of central and state agencies play a role in the regulation, operation and sustenance of inland water transport. Their smooth functioning is required for IWT to be viable. This is a complex issue and needs to be addressed in the remaining part of this research. Some of the actors in this sector are given below.
' CIWTC and other operators
' Customers
' State governments
' Transport development agencies
The regulatory-cum-infrastructure provider role that IWAI is supposed to take needs to be sharpened keeping in mind the operational aspects of this sector. IWAI has taken on a limited role in provision of some infrastructure at terminals (for example at Patna, Guwahati and Kerala) and has also commissioned some medium size barges for operation. But the main responsibility of IWAI remains the provision an effective waterway at least on the National Waterway system.

The system of recovering reasonable operational charges for various services and thereby ensuring a level of service on the infrastructure has not yet evolved in inland waterways. In India, the other two major modes of transport (road and rail) have very different operating and regulatory models and a suitable model needs to be evolved for IWT.

Inland water operations are often interfaced with coastal and deep sea movements. While ocean movements are guided by a mix of international and national laws, coastal shipping is within the ambit of the central government control and an attempt can be made to synergise this activity with IWT where possible. The major issues are those of operating standards, including vessel certification, safety and personnel related concerns.

CIWTC, based in Kolkata is an organization that has been loss making and which has been considered for privatization. It has a large fleet of barges, but not many that are in operation (for both traffic reasons and operability). A complementary asset is Rajabagan Dock Yard, which does have facilities for ship-building and repair of the required range of vessels. Although the Dock Yard has also shown some improvement, neither it nor the River Services Division is close to being financially and operationally viable as of now. Given the declining demand and the large overheads of CIWTC, its continued presence is not critical for IWT. The various services provided by CIWTC would however retain their significance. This includes ship-building and repair, terminal operations, barge operations and warehousing.

The National Inland Navigation Institute is functioning in India. It has limited staff strength and has so far done training and certification and a few focused studies.
Other country experiences:Surveys have been done in past reports, of other countries where inland waterways have been successfully used and continue to be used. In the region, UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) publications on IWT give brief comparative pictures of India, Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Thailand and the Mekong river system. Published policy overviews on IWT also discuss measures such as standardisation of navigation rules and modernization strategies through this forum. An initiative taken by Japan attempts to consolidate the knowledge base and facilitate exchanges of good practices on IWT.
IWT experience across the world is varied and offers interesting comparisons. What follows is an indicative set of observations.

Bangladesh: A significant fraction (about 35%) of the freight movement in the country is by IWT because of the geography of the region. Riverine ports are quite well developed and competing modes (rail and road) are not as developed in comparative terms.

Thailand: IWT is next to road in share of freight carried (about 20 million tons). Passenger movement in and around Bangkok is significant, with different types of services, including express services.

North America: Freight movements on the Great Lakes and the Mississippi continue to be important modes. Leisure activities based on water movement are quite common. The Transportation Research Board publishes studies on a variety of aspects of IWT in North America and elsewhere.

Europe: IWT is estimated to carry about 7 percent (and growing) of freight traffic in those EU states. In the EU states with waterways, this proportion is 12 % overall and it accounts for more than 40% of ton-km in some regions [European Commission, 2001]. River training and use of rivers and canals for a variety of purposes has been common for a number of years. IWT is seen as a complementary mode of transport, and offers another option as part of the environmental impacts of different modes of transport and the increasing role of multi-modal transport and containerization. The current challenges are safety and the development of information systems to harmonize IWT traffic across Europe.

China: The navigable inland waterways in China total more than 100,000 kilometers and there are a large number of inland port facilities with berths for large vessels. IWT accounts for almost 10 per cent of the total freight tonnage carried in the country, and of that, two thirds is carried on the Yangtze river (including commodities like coal, steel, cement, containers and LPG). In particular, many steel mills are located along the Yangtze river and use barges for transport of material. The downstream part of the river carries barges up to 10000 T capacity. Barges move on the river for more than 3000 km, but a shift in priorities is reflected in the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, which is a 370 mile long reservoir and which will now involve a system of locks which barges will have to traverse. The full impact of this on river traffic is not yet clear. In fact, navigability of the river upstream and downstream may actually improve with the controlled flow of water that the dam provides.

6.6- Environmental impact
Water is per se a scarce resource in the country. The use of water for facilitating transport may be sometimes difficult to justify. Related to this is the increased drawing of water for drinking, irrigation, construction and other activity, which reduces the overall flow of water in downstream regions. This makes transport operations difficult. Dams provide another level differential barrier to smooth transport. Given all these constraints, inland water transport is not at all the automatic first choice for movement of goods ' a position that it enjoyed for many centuries in the past.
However, where it is physically possible and commercially viable as part of a supply chain for a shipper, it is usually the most appealing environmentally. The basic reason for this is low fuel usage and therefore low pollution from emissions, and ability to carry in bulk, thereby reducing handling related pollution and congestion.


o Starting from 12Ft to 30Ft.
o Capacity : 1 - 10 persons.
Available in different models.
Length 4.57 m
Breadth 0.75 m
Depth 0.30 m
Capacity 3 Persons
Approx Weight 50 +/- 2 kg.
Draft 0.20 m


A ferry is a boat or ship (a merchant vessel) used to carry (or ferry) primarily passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi.

Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels. However, ship connections of much larger distances (such as over long distances in water bodies like the Mediterranean Sea) may also be called ferry services, especially if they carry vehicles.

There are many indian types of ferry in using in iwt,


Length 4.5 m
Breadth 1.58m
Draft 0.25 m
Capacity 4 +/- 2
Engine 40/60 HP OBM
Speed 20-22 knots with 40 HP(in clam waters) Max: recommended OBM 70 HP


Length 5.48 m
Breadth 1.72 m
Depth 0.75 m
Draft 0.25 m
Capacity 8-10 persons
Engine 40/60 HP OBM
Speed 20-22 knots with 40 HP(in clam waters) 28-30 knots with 115 HP(in calm waters)


Length 5.48 m
Breadth 1.72 m
Depth 0.75 m
Draft 0.25 m
Capacity 8-10 persons
Engine 40/60 HP OBM
Speed 20-22 knots with 40 HP(in clam waters) 28-30 knots with 115 HP(in calm waters)


Length 4.19 m
Breadth 0.76 m
Depth 0.23 m
Draft 0.20 m
Capacity 2 Persons

Approx. weight 40 +/- 2 kg

Length 3.5 m
Breadth 0.71 m
Depth 0.33 m
Draft 0.20 m
Capacity 1 Persons

Approx. weight 30 +/- 2 kg

Length 3.83 m
Breadth 1.38 m
Draft 0.25 m
Capacity 4-5 Persons
Depth 0.55 m
Approx. weight 90+ kg
Propulsion provision for fixing 2 HP OBM

Length 2.35 m
Breadth 1.62 m
Depth 0.61 m
Draft 0.20 m
Capacity 3 Adult 2 Children or 300 kg (Approx.)
Approx. Weight 75 kg
Canopy Optional


Length 4.87 m
Breadth 2.12 m
Depth 0.68 m
Draft 0.20 m
Capacity 8 +/- 2 persons
Engine 8 HP OBM
Hull Type Inverted 'V' shaped bow & flat at stem (Twin stem)


Length 7.66 m
Breadth 2.10 m
Depth(Mid ship) 1.2 m
Capacity 25-30 (15-20 pax if diesel engine is fixed)
Engine 45 HP Mahindra diesel 2:1 GB
Speed 7 - 8 knots with 25 HP Petrol OBM Inboard engine 6/7 knots
Draft 0.70 m


Hull Material: High impact composite FRP
Construction: Contact moulding
Hull Shape: Planning chine
Length: 5.48 M
Boat Beam: 1.72 M
Depth:0.75 M
Draft:0.20 M
Weight:350 to 500 Kg
Capacity: 8 persons
Standard hardware: Non skid centre floor, Moulded seats, Bollard & Cleats, Chequered aluminium transom shield for engine mount & sacrificial marine plywood,sail hooks, rear view mirror, ladder. Available accessories: Engines & controls, ford & aft stainless steel rails,parasail unit, life saving equipment, navigational lights, horn,wind screen, boat cover.

oThe first choice for inland patrolling. Uses OBM from 40 to 100 HP.
oConstruction : Contact moulding/Infusion
Length 5.48 m
Breadth 1.72 m
Depth 0.75 m
Draft 0.25 m
Capacity 8-10 persons
Engine 40-100 HP OBM
Speed 20-22 knots with 40 HP(in clam waters) 28-30 knots with 115 HP(in calm waters)


An appreciation of traffic flow characteristics on the links of project roads, in terms of volume, composition, hourly variation, origin and destination, mode wise occupancy, type and quantity of commodity carried etc. is important to assess the prevailing level of service, project future traffic, to evaluate alternate strategies of development and maintenance, and identify appropriate programme of action.

8.1 Survey Locations
The traffic volume count survey was conducted at 5 station locations along the proposed for comparison purpose. The name of the locations along with duration of survey is presented below in Table:

Table 1: Traffic Volume Count Survey Locations
Location Date of Survey Duration (Hr.) Timing
1 RTO circle 12/3/2014 12 8:00am to 8:00pm
2 Juna Vadaj 12/3/2014 12 8:00am to 8:00pm
3 Income Tex 12/3/2014 12 8:00am to 8:00pm
4 Patang Hotel 12/3/2014 12 8:00am to 8:00pm
5 Paldi crossing 12/3/2014 12 8:00am to 8:00pm

Figure 14: Traffic Volume Count Survey Locations

The following traffic surveys were carried out as part of the study:
1. Dealay survey (Traffic Volume Count Survey)
2. Travel Time Delay Survey
3. Spot Speed Survey
4. Origin and destination Survey
5. Willingness to shift Survey

All the surveys were carried out during the whole day on 12march,2014. The field enumerators for traffic surveys were recruited locally and trained our college students. The fieldwork was supervised by five to seven students supervisor for each count station monitored. A group of count stations was overseen by our college Prof. Deepak chowdhary. Overall planning and co-ordination work was done by a dedicated our all 8th Sem students who helped and also our college Prof. Deepak chowdhary. Data, on screening, processing and coding, have been compiled into a computer database.

8.2. Traffic Volume Count Survey
Traffic volume count surveys were conducted in both directions during the stoppage ate the crossing of the Road at the survey station, using manual counting method by trained enumerators using hand tally marks. The count data were recorded at 15-minute intervals for each RED Signal to stop vehicles at every crossing. The various vehicle count in 20 second interval due to each stoppages to having different sizes of traffic volume flow. The traffic volume count surveys were carried out continuously for 12 hours of the day, at 5 count stations locations covering all project road links. In addition, traffic volume count surveys were carried out at 5 count stations on Road route which nearer to Sabarmati river for carried out to viable waterway on river.

The vehicle classification system adopted for conducting the traffic volume counts along with respective Total No.of Vehicle Stopped in Approach At Time in sec factors, as recommended by Indian Road Congress in 'Guidelines for Capacity of Roads in Rural Areas' (IRC-64-1990) are presented inTables:

Table 2: Traffic Volume Count Survey at INCOME TAX
Sr.No. Meter Queue
length Time Total No.of Vehicle Stopped in Approach At Time in sec
0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 140-160 160-180 180-200
1. 25 9:00 20 19 26 20
2. 22 9:15 18 18 27 30
3. 26 9:30 16 25 18 36
4. 45 9:45 30 41 15 35
5. 55 10:00 25 16 26 26
6. 68 10:15 15 32 20 25
7. 71 10:30 23 41 40 28
8. 59 10:45 21 20 44 15
9. 55 11:00 35 20 32 50
10. 51 11:15 20 35 38 23
11. 38 11:30 29 33 21 34
12. 37 11:45 45 43 23 32
13. 30 12:00 31 38 35 30
14. 36 4:00 27 39 29 30
15. 25 4:15 48 50 30 42
16. 48 4:30 30 28 41 46
17. 50 4:45 30 30 39 48
18. 60 5:00 24 32 45 73
19. 87 5:15 23 29 61 63
20. 90 5:30 19 63 73 61

Chart 1:Traffic Volume Count Survey of INCOME TAX
Table 3: Traffic Volume Count Survey at PATANG HOTEL
Sr.No. Meter Queue
length Time Total No.of Vehicle Stopped in Approach At Time in sec
0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 140-160 160-180 180-200
1. 30 9:00 30 19 18 30
2. 35 9:15 15 35 40 40
3. 50 9:30 18 22 26 30
4. 65 9:45 16 25 30 35
5. 80 10:00 20 32 48 68
6. 80 10:15 30 25 29 20
7. 75 10:30 25 32 30 25
8. 65 10:45 30 28 25 28
9. 62 11:00 25 20 20 23
10. 60 11:15 23 17 30 19
11. 52 11:30 21 26 47 30
12. 45 11:45 18 15 20 25
13. 42 12:00 27 25 15 18
14. 40 4:00 30 25 22 15
15. 45 4:15 25 32 39 50
16. 52 4:30 28 25 20 15
17. 59 4:45 32 38 47 30
18. 68 5:00 25 30 38 35
19. 81 5:15 35 30 40 32
20. 90 5:30 40 48 55 32

Chart 2: Traffic Volume Count Survey of PATANG HOTEL

Table 4: Traffic Volume Count Survey at PALDI CROSS ROAD
Sr.No. Meter Queue
length Time Total No.of Vehicle Stopped in Approach At Time in sec
0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 140-160 160-180 180-200
1 25 9:00 15 23 25 32
2 33 9:15 25 35 45 41
3 39 9:30 19 33 52 55
4 46 9:45 26 40 56 71
5 58 10:00 20 34 48 66
6 63 10:15 30 50 74 100
7 73 10:30 21 39 63 81
8 84 10:45 20 35 60 75
9 69 11:00 19 30 45 60
10 55 11:15 14 27 35 62
11 36 11:30 17 31 39 65
12 30 11:45 19 24 37 67
13 26 12:00 15 32 43 54
14 35 4:00 30 45 61 71
15 46 4:15 28 40 51 60
16 49 4:30 14 27 43 69
17 52 4:45 34 53 66 83
18 64 5:00 19 31 49 66
19 78 5:15 22 35 47 64
20 89 5:30 23 46 65 72

Chart 3:Traffic Volume Count Survey of PALDI CROSS ROAD
Hourly Variation and Peak Hour Share
Analysis has been carried out to study the hourly variation and peak hour traffic characteristics. It is totally based on the delay survey data for the analysis.

The morning peak is observed to occur between 9:30 a.m. and 11 a.m. and the evening peak between 4:30 p.m to 7 p.m. in almost all the corridors. The Peak Hour share is defined as the ratio of the number of vehicles counted during the peak hour to the total vehicles counted in a day. The peak hour share on the project roads varies between 5.1% and 8.6% for morning and between 5.3 % and 8.5% for evening peaks. The hourly distribution of a typical project corridor is illustrated in table.

8.3. Travel Time Delay Survey
Travel Time Delay Survey, by 'Average Vehicle' method were carried out along the study corridors. Anumber of runs were made. Journey Speeds range between 30 kmph and 40 kmph. The differencebetween journey and running speeds are not significant indicating absence of major bottleneck pointsalong the stretches. The causes of delay, where they occur, are railway level crossings, crossing ofopposing traffic on single lane roads with poor shoulder conditions and narrow bridges.
Sr.No Time
Place Stopped
At Delay Operational
Delay Speed of
Traffic In The Direction
Of Flow
No. of vehicle
Avg. Speed No. of vehicle
Over took
RTO to Vadaj 40 15 50
Vadaj to Income tax 40 17 65
Income tax to Patang Hotel 40 17 61
4 Patang Hotel to Paldi 40 19 48

Table 5: Travel Time Delay Survey on 8:30am

Chart 4: Travel Time Delay Survey on 8:30am

Table 6: Travel Time Delay Survey on 10:30am
Sr.No Time
Place Stopped
At Delay Operational
Delay Speed of
Traffic In The Direction
Of Flow
No. of vehicle
Avg. Speed No. of vehicle
Over took
1 RTO to Vadaj 40 12 89
Vadaj to Income tax 40 14 98
3 Income tax to Patang Hotel 40 22 105
4 Patang Hotel to Paldi 40 13 78

Chart 5: Travel Time Delay Survey on 10:30am
Sr.No Time
Place Stopped
At Delay Operational
Delay Speed of
Traffic In The Direction
Of Flow
No. of vehicle
Avg. Speed No. of vehicle
Over took
1 RTO to Vadaj 40 18 139
2 Vadaj to Income tax 40 14 145
3 Income tax to Patang Hotel 40 11 163
Patang Hotel to Paldi 40 10 125
Table 7: Travel Time Delay Survey on 5:30am

Chart 6: Travel Time Delay Survey on 5:30pm

8.4. Spot Speed Surveys
Spot Speed surveys, by use of radar speed gun, were carried out at 5 count stations. The surveys were carried out in high traffic density corridors representing all the corridor types taken up for the study.

Table 8: Spot Speed Surveys
Two wheeler Three wheeler Four wheeler Bus/Truck

sec Speed

kmph Time

Sec Speed

kmph Time

sec Speed

kmph Time

sec Speed

2.40 29.99 2.92 24.65 1.71 42.10 2.69 26.76
2.03 35.46 2.28 31.57 1.81 39.77 3.34 21.55
1.63 44.17 3.25 22.15 2.29 31.44 3.23 22.29
2.83 25.44 3.28 21.95 2.98 24.16 4.89 14.72
1.91 37.69 2.41 29.87 1.91 37.69 3.03 23.76
3.55 30.92 4.43 24.37 2.79 38.70 4.27 25.29
2.55 42.35 3.94 27.48 2.78 38.84 4.55 23.73
3.17 34.06 4.27 25.29 4.81 22.45 4.36 24.77
2.16 49.99 3.73 28.95 3.16 34.17 4.40 24.54
3.15 34.28 3.66 29.50 3.39 31.85 7.04 15.34
3.72 38.70 5.94 24.24 3.79 37.99 6.90 20.86
3.42 42.10 4.54 31.71 2.95 48.81 7.36 19.56
3.93 36.67 4.68 30.76 4.53 31.78 4.92 29.26
2.78 48.32 4.39 32.80 4.19 34.36 4.65 30.96
2.76 32.17 4.25 33.88 4.82 29.87 4.69 30.70


Chart 7: Spot Speed Surveys

Transportation systems are designed to help people achieve mobility in order to reach their points of work, education or offices from their places of residence. One of the major factors responsible for the success or failure of any mass transport system is the way in which it is perceived by the public it is intended for. Hence, after the stakeholders were interviewed to know the various administrative, legal and policy level constituents of the ferry system, it was considered necessary to understand the role played by the ferry in the daily lives of the average citizen.

Public perception about the ferry services was gauged using a primary survey conducted with one hundred samples spread across various locations in RTO TO PALDI , ahmedabad near Sabarmati Riverfront area.

Samples were randomly chosen and asked about their experiences on the system and their expectations from it. The questionnaire for this purpose was designed with the purpose of extracting relevant information without seeming to be too intrusive. Additionally, representatives of passenger associations were heard for their perspective and individual old-timers were also sought for their views on how the transportation system had changed over the years.

We are chosen five station in the routes RTO to Paldi among the busiest travel routes and hence maximum number of samples were chosen on these routes.
1. RTO Circle to Vadaj
2. Vadaj to Income tax
3. Income tax to Patang Hotel
4. Patang Hotel to Paldi

9.1. The ferry system plays a very important role in the daily lives of office-goers and students:
An overwhelming sixty-nine percent of the sample were found to be workers in addition to another fourteen percent who were found to be students making their trip to better avenues of education, which more often than not were located in the mainland and were thus a short boat-ride away from their homes and their road route. Similarly, fifty-seven percent of the sample fell in the age group between twenty-six to fifty-nine years of age. Another twenty-six percent fell in the age group of ten to twenty-five years of age. In a following question, it is revealed that over fifty-eight percent made the ferry trip more than ten time a week which implies that they are eternally dependent on the ferry service for their daily travel needs, either to the place of work or for education. Of all the trips being made, a figure as high as sixty-one percent was attributed to work trips.

Chart 8: Occupation of the Interviewees

These figures establish beyond doubt the important role played by the ferry system in the lives of the daily commuters comprised of office-goers and students in ahmedabad.
9.2. People closest to the boat jetties are most-likely to avail the services of the ferry system:

Over forty percent of the ferry users began their trips closer than one kilometre away from the jetty, which is considered to be walkable in Indian conditions and also closer to the road way among to most crossing, bus stands, commercial buildings , residet area, and one of the most important closer to the colleges. Similarly, more than fifty percent users head to a destination less than one kilometre away from the jetty.

Chart 9: Distance from trip origin to jetty

Chart 10: Distance from jetty to trip destination
Even more importantly, thirty-two percent of the interviewees came from a distance between one and five kilometres away from the jetty. Likewise, thirty-four percent indicated that they were heading to a destination at a distance of one to five kilometres from the jetty.

These figures could have been slightly higher, had there been enough incentive for the people to use the ferry system in-lieu of private vehicles. It was also found that while fifty-two percent of the interviewees walked from the point of origin, forty percent depended on public transport to reach the jetty.

Similarly, fifty-nine percent walked from the jetty to the trip destination, whereas twenty-eight percent took public transport for this purpose. Last-mile connectivity is therefore a major concern as far as ferry users are concerned. The administration may therefore pay more attention to people-responsive design of walkways and feeder services to the boat jetties.

9.3. The poorer sections of the citizenry depend on the ferry services the most:
A sizeable fifty-six percent of the Road users interviewed had less than ten thousand rupees as their monthly family income. this includes Twelve percent passengers whose monthly income fell below five thousand rupees. Also three percent of the interviewees vouched that they did not own any vehicle. The remaining Ninty-seven percent owned either motorbikes or cars or

Similarly, fifty percent of the sample spent less than twenty rupees a day on transportation with another twenty-five percent spending between twenty to fourty rupees on transportation to reach their offices or schools daily. All these suggest that it is the poor who depend on the ferry service more than the privileged.

This is in agreement with the wide trend across the country. While the well-heeled and the affluent can afford to own and spend on their own private vehicles, it is often the poor and the economically weaker sections that are left to fend for themselves with the lack of attention towards public transportation.

Chart 12:Average daily expenditure on transportation

Needless to say, any changes considered with respect to making the ferry service more attractive to the general public must find their focus in this constituency that has always been overlooked in the general planning process.

9.4. Major motivation for ferry users is that it helps them save time and is inexpensive:
The major reasons behind people patronising the ferry system inspite of its many obvious shortcomings are that it takes lesser time to travel between RTO to Paldi, say, by the ferry than taking a bus or private vehicle due to the heavy traffic on the city roads especially during peak hours.
Another important factor is clearly the low fares on the ferry system in comparison to bus transport or private vehicle. While a ferry trip from RTO to Paldi costs shall be less than another transportation , a bus trip costs as much as fourteen rupees and autorikshos trip cost as much as twenty rupees on this time .

Chart 13: Reasons for choosing the ferry over other modes

Therefore, savings on time and money will be use as the moot points to attract more people to the ferry system. This, besides the other advantages of a ferry ride being many times more comfortable and enjoyable than a bumpy bus ride.

9.5. The Road users are not happy about the quality of their commute:
Around fifty-six percent of the passengers interviewed for the study expressed their dissatisfaction with the quality of the Road service. This includes five percent who were extremely dissatisfied with their experience on the Road system. Another twenty-nine percent conceded that they were dissatisfied with the level of service delivery on the Road system due to heavy traffic flow. Another twenty-two percent chose to remain neutral.


From the primary survey conducted on the sample, several issues and obstacles faced by the existing users of the ferry system came to the fore. Based upon those, the following suggestions are put forward to make the ferry system appealing to the users.

' Provide basic facilities: As an immediate step, basic facilities such as seating, leak proof roof, clean toilets for both sexes and lighting and drinking water facilities may be provided at the ferry stations.

' Timely dredging: Ensure all-round-the-year approach to jetties for boats by frequent dredging of the channel and by understanding the natural factors that contribute to this phenomenon.

' Improving accessibility: The approach roads to the ferry stations shall be well-laid with minimum level differences to make access easier for the old and women in particular.

' Monetization: The various government agencies must immediately take proactive measures towards monetizing the market value of several prime plots of land under their occupancy in the heart of the city. The revenues earned as rent from such property may then be used to subsidize ferry ticket fares for the common people.

' Improve facilities: Rebrand the ferry system and change the public image of the ferry service in tune with the aspirations of the new generation. Make available light refreshments, newspapers and light music within the ferry as well as changing the seating pattern to enable face to face interaction can help the passengers in socializing and make the twenty-thirty minute trip as enjoyable and productive as the Mumbai suburban experience.

' Fare-revision: The fares may be raised to help ease the financial crisis suffered by the operating agency and the remaining deficit in the operation of the ferry services may be cross subsidized by raising funds from land-monetization.

' Promote the concept of pay-park-and-go system at ferry stations so that people from the upwardly mobile classes also feel attracted to using the ferry station.

' Introduce technological advances in the field of water transportation such as faster boats, double-hulled catamarans and amphi-bus.

' Provide end-to-end connectivity for passengers from their doorstep to the intended destination. Feeder buses or share-autos may take the passengers from their neighbourhood to the ferry station and back.

' Reroute buses and other modes of transport including the proposed metro-rail in a manner that they touch ferry stations so that the ferry users can have assured last-mile connectivity.

' Introduce the concept of suitably subsidized season tickets with benefits for daily and frequent travellers. Extend the concept of smart cards for the benefit of daily travellers. Similarly daily and weekly passes can be encouraged for the benefit of the tourists.

' Reduce turnaround time for ferries by encouraging circular services (clockwise and anticlockwise) connecting the whole area.

' Facilitate easier embarking and disembarking from the vessels by use of appropriate technologies. This will benefit the aged and women who depend on the ferry services more than anybody else.

' Involve the citizenry more actively in the planning and rebranding of the ferry system and solicit views on their aspirations and expectations from the new ferry system.

It is indeed a matter of grave concern that despite the presence of such a vast network of waterways in the city, we have been unable to make use of it by positively integrating it into our city mobility plans. This is as serious an offence as the fact that despite copious rains, several parts of Ahmedabad are still subjected to severe water crisis, especially in the period just before the monsoons' arrival. While cities across the globe are competing with each other on how to make best use of the natural advantages available to them, thanks to lack of foresight and planning, Ahmedabad has found refuge in merely aping the west or the oriental. The severe crisis in transportation sector witnessed by our city today is an opportunity to set a few wrongs right and head in the direction of a sustainable and environment friendly model of transportation. On these counts, IWT scores heavily against other available modes. In accordance with the established provisions of the National Urban Transport Policy, 2006 and Inland Waterways Transportation Policy, 2001 we must address the concerns of the poorest of the poor who are most dependent on public transportation and set up this highly efficient and inexpensive mode of transportation in a financially-sound business model and technically feasible manner as early as possible.

1. CIWTC, 2004a. Internal Notes.
2. CIWTC, 2004b. Fixed Schedule Sailing National Waterway 1; A Report, Central Inland Water Transport Corporation Ltd., Kolkata.
3. CMYK, 2005. Darpan, February, 2005. CMYK Multimedia Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.
4. European Commission, 2001. White Paper-European Ttransport Policy for 2010: Time to Decide, Directorate General for Energy and Transport (http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport), Luxembourg, 2002.
5. GMOEA, 2004. Goan Mineral Ore Exports, Goa Mineral Ore Exporters' Association, Goa.
6. Indian Infrastructure Publishing, 2004. Indian Infrastructure, Vol. 6 No. 7, February 2004, New Delhi.
7. MOS, 2001. Inland Water Transport Policy, Ministry of Shipping, Government of India, New Delhi,
8. MOLJ, 1986. The Inland Vessels Act, 1917, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India, New Delhi
9. MOLJCA, 1985. Inland Waterways Authority of India Act, Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi.
10. Outlook Publishing, 2004. Outlook Traveller, November,2004, Mumbai.
11. Planning Commission, 2001. Report of the Working Group on Inland Water Transport, Sr No 9/2001, New Delhi.
12. Raghuram G, 2004. Integrating Coastal Shipping with National Transport Network in India, Proceedings of the International Association of Maritime Economists, Annual Conference 2004, vol II, School of Maritime Business and Management, DokuzEylul Publications, Izmir, 2004
13. Raghuram G and Rangaraj, Narayan, 2005. Systems Perspectives on Inland Water Transport for Freight Movement, presented at the 37th annual meeting of the Operational Research Society of India, Ahmedabad, January 8-11, 2005.
14. RahmanMushfequr, 1994. National Transport System of Bangladesh, Asian Transport Journal, Asian Institute of Transport development, New Delhi, November 1994.
15. SRFDCL, 1998. Sabarmati Riverfront Development, Sabarmati Riverfront Development Corporation Ltd, Ahmedabad, May 1998.
16. TIFAC, 1992. Techno Market Survey on Adaptation of Irrigation Canals for Navigation. Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council, New Delhi, August 1992
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19. WB, 2005. China Inland Waterways Project, World Bank, http://www.worldbank.org/transport/ports/iwt_dev.htm
20. www.travelchinaguide.com, http://www.travelchinaguide.com/faq/cruise/three-gorges- project.htm
Additional references
1. Chowdhary, Vinod, 2003. Rivers of Growth, Spot Light, vol.3, issue II, November 2003.
2. CIWTC, June 2004. Discussion note, 02 June 2004.
3. Government of India, 2003. Outline of Sagar Mala Project
4. MOST, 2002. Inland Waterways Authority of India Rules, 1986, Ministry of Surface Transport, Government of India, New Delhi.
5. IWAI, 1993. Delegation of Powers: Amended in 37th Meeting of the Authority held on 26.11.1993, Inland Waterways Authority of India, Noida.
6. IWT Directorate, July 2003. Statistical Data on IWT in the State of West Bengal for the Year 2001-2002, Inland Water Transport Directorate, Transport Department, Govt. of West Bengal, 2nd July 2003.
7. Kraan, Martin, 2002. Inland Waterway in Europe At What Level We Want to Play, Seminar On 'The Inland Waterways of Tomorrow on the European.
8. MOST, 1986. Subordinate Legislation under the Inland Vessels Act, 1917, Ministry of Surface Transport, Government of India, New Delhi.
9. Planning Commission, 1980. Report of the National Transport Policy Committee, Government of India, New Delhi.
10. Sriraman S, 1998. Inland Water Transport in India: Issues and Prospects, Asian Transport Journal, Asian Institute of Transport Development, New Delhi, June 1998.
11. Tayal, Praful, 2004. 'India ' 2010' (Inland Water Transport Sector: IWT)- A Vision, Central Inland Water Transport corporation Ltd, Kolkata.
12. TIFAC, 1996. Waterways Technology Vision 2020, Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council, New Delhi, March 1996
13. WBTD, 2001. A Study on Passenger Ferry Services on the River Hoogly (Kalyani to Kakdwip), Transportation Planning and Traffic Engineering Directorate, Transport Department, Government of West Bengal, July 2001.
14. UNESCAP Transport and Tourism Division, Publications (http://www.unescap.org/ttdw)
15. Statistics of the Directorate of Inland Water Transport, Govt of Assam, 2003-04.
16. Inland Water Transport in North East Region: Water-ways of the North East region, Manuscript prepared by the Directorate of Inland Water Transport, Govt of Assam for the 9th Five-year plan.

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