STAR has established strategic alliances with a formidable array of companies, working closely together to explore business opportunities in the unique business environments of countries across Asia. These relationships help STAR to break new ground in content creation, distribution and sales. The joint venture of STAR with some of the companies are as follows
It has been around for centuries, when the people used to try to achieve the goals through the sensible use of people and resources, getting the others to work toward these goals, and keeping track of whether or not we are accomplishing what we decided to achieve. In other terms we can say that management is a very old concept. We know that the planning, leading, organizing and controlling are the functions of management and these all had begun at the end of the 1800s. These are the people of twentieth century whom we recognize today, they have contributed a lot.
Following are the contributors who presented their ideas before the late 1800s
Ø Robert Owen
Ø Charles Babbage
Ø Henry E. Towne
According to the classical view “An organization is the structure of the relationships, power, objectives, roles, activities, communications and other factors that exist when persons work together.”
Classical viewpoint is divided into three points:-
It is defined as the use of the scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done.
Federick W. Taylor made important contributions to scientific management theory.
Contribution made by Taylor: - Taylor worked at the steel company as a mechanical engineer with a puritan background; he was continually appalled by workers' inefficiencies. He observed that the workers' output was only one third of what was possible. He performed some experiments based on the scientific methods and was able to increase the efficiency of the workers.
Pig iron experiment is best known example of Taylor's scientific management efforts for improving production efficiency.
Let's check out the pig iron experiment: - Taylor observed that the workers used to load pig iron onto railcars and their daily average output was 12.5 tons. He believed that by scientifically analyzing the job to determine the “one best way” to load pig iron, output could be increased to 47 to 48 tons per day. After scientifically applying different combinations of procedures, techniques, and tools, Taylor succeeded in getting that level of productivity. He put right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment, had the worker follow his instructions exactly, and motivated the worker with an economic incentive of a significantly higher wage.
Using similar approaches for other jobs, Taylor was able to define the “one best way” for doing each job. Taylor achieved consistent productivity improvements. For his innovative studies of manual work using scientific principles, Taylor became known as the “father” of scientific management.
Max Weber (a German sociologist) studied the entire organization and developed the theory of authority structures and relations. He described an ideal type of organization he called abureaucracy(a form of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships). He recognized that this “ideal bureaucracy” didn't exist in reality. Instead he intended it as a basis for theorizing about how work could be done in large groups. As described by the Weber bureaucracy is lot like scientific management in its ideology. Both emphasize rationality, predictability, impersonality, technical competence, and authoritarianism.
There are some principles to be used by the managers, both individually and collectively to improve the performance of the overall functions of the organization.
According to Henri Fayol planning, organizing, leading, controlling were the major managerial functions. After Fayol these functions have been slightly modified several times. Fayol's attention was directed toward the activities of all managers. He described the practice of management as something distinct from accounting, finance, production, distribution, and other typical business functions. His belief that management was an activity common to all business endeavors, government, and even in the home led him to develop fourteen principles of management.
The field of study concerned with the behavior (action) of people at work is calledorganizational behavior .Much of what currently makes up the field of human resource management, as well as contemporary views on motivation, leadership, trust, teamwork and conflict management, has come out of organizational behavior research.
Early Advocates of OB:-
Mary Parker Follett
They all believed that people were the most important advantage of the organization and should be managed accordingly. Their ideas provided the foundation for such management practices as teams, and organization-environment management techniques.
The series of studies conducted at the western Electric Company Works in Cicero, the important contribution to the developing OB field came out of the Hawthorne studies. It was initially designed by Western Electrical industrial engineers as a scientific management experiment. In order to examine the effect of various illumination levels on worker productivity they set up control and experimental group and experimental group was being exposed to various lighting intensities and the control group was working under a constant intensity. They found that as the intensity was increased in the experimental group productivity for both the group increased. The engineers were very much surprised when the found that as the level of light was decreased the output was decrease was observed in the experimental group only when the light was reduced to that of a moonlit night.
It reflected the scientific management tradition of seeking greater efficiency by improving the tools and methods of work in this case the level of lighting.
The Theory of motivation that was based on three assumptions about human nature was developed by Abraham Maslow. The Human Relation Movement was an attempt to furnish managers with the social skills they need.
Theory X and Theory Y developed by Douglas Mcgregor
Quantitative approach involves application of statistics, optimization models, information models and computer simulations to management activities in order to improve decision making for example linear programming is a technique that managers use to improve resource allocation decisions
It is also called Operations research. Through the use of statistical method and sophisticated mathematical models this approach aims to increase decision effectiveness.
It uses advanced analytical methods such as mathematical modeling, statistic analysis and mathematical optimization to arrive at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision making problems. It is often concerned with determining the maximum of profit, performance or yield or minimum of loss, risk or cost of some real world objective.
It is concerned with the production of goods and services and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operation are efficient in terms of little resources are needed and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements and it is also concerned with process that convert input (input may be in the form of materials, labor and energy) into output (output may be in the form of goods and services).
Management information is basically concerned with processing data into information which is then communicated to the different departments of organization for decision making
Data collection involves the use of Information Technologies comprising of telecommunication networks and computer i.e. E-mails, internet phone, voice mail, Video conferencing, chatting etc.
Management information system provides several benefits to the business organization by saving the time and money and also by keeping the data and messages secured.
The management of star India uses classical viewpoint approach that emphasizes the total organization and ways to improve overall effectiveness and efficiency
Application of Scientific Management:-If any project is given to the star India the management scientifically studies each part of the project and after that they develop a best method to complete the project. If in the execution of this project help of the workers or employees is needed firstly they select the specific workers scientifically who are suitable for the project and then the workers or employees is trained for the work. Through this method management develop the employees. Management of the star India always tries to assist with the workers in order to make sure that the workers are using the proper method or not. They split the work responsibilities equally between them and workers all the work for which management is suited better is taken by the management.
Application of Bureaucratic Management:- In Star India a perfect division of labor is there, the task of each employee is defined, every employee does the work according to schedule. The job for telecasting the news is divided into the shifts i.e. the nights and the day shifts. The position is also arranged in a Hierarchy with a clear chain of command. The HR management selects the people for job based on their technical qualification and skills. They have a system of written rules and standard operation procedures and all the members of star India have to follow the rules and regulation which has been defined, these rules do not vary according to the personalities these are same for all. And managers are career orientated not owners of the units they manage.
Application of the Administrative management:- The managers of Star India apply some principles of administrative management in order to improve the performance of the overall function of the organization.
The major objective of any organization is to increase its productivity or the outcomes and the managers of Star India also wants to increase their productivity for this purpose they divide the work among the workers by doing this the workers can do the work given to them very efficiently, and if the workers of the organization are very effective it means that the productivity of the organization is also effective. But managers can divide the works or guide the workers or give orders to them if they have authority, that is why the managers of Star India has the authority to give the orders to the workers this authority enables them to put the workers in the right track which will be beneficial for the organization.
Discipline is the main key of success of any organization without discipline no one can achieve success in the life, that is why a proper disciple is followed in the Star India ltd and every member of the organization has to follow the discipline.
Different people have a different opinion, so if the workers of any organization will be getting command from different people then they will be confused what to do, whom they should listen that is why the workers of Star India get the commands from only one superior. In order to direct the workers or managers Star India has only single plan of action, by having only one plan organization is use to be very specific what to do and how to do , and they also got the experience as the plan have been implemented many times. As the organization is very big only the top management cannot guide all the workers so there is a proper chain of management in Star India in order to provide the workers a proper guidance.
Getting the full effort from the side of workers is the top preference of any organization but it will be possible only if the workers will get the appropriate wages for their work. This is being done in Star India, the workers are provided with the sufficient salary according to the level of the work they do.
If the management is going to take any important decision all the managers of Star India take participation in making decision that results in the achievement of success. The managers afford systematic personal schedule and can fill the vacancies in the organization. If the managers find good team work they appreciate the group work it helps in creating unity within the organization.
Management of Star India considers the workers or the employees as the most important advantage of their organization therefore they manage their employee according to the behavior of the people at work.
The managers always try to be aware of the action of the employees at the work. They try to remove the fatigue of the workers by giving them holidays from the works they try to find out the reason for the tension among the workers if anyone seems physically unfit they suggest them for medical treatment and offer them few leaves.
If the workers are unable to do work according to the duration of the work schedule they try to change the schedule. If the workers are unable to work effectively the managers alter the rest times given to the workers and see the changes accordingly, the managers of Star India also try to motivate the workers individually in order to keep them in track and to increase the productivity of the organization.
Managers of the Star India are very well aware of that human being have many need and they are never satisfied their needs increases as they fulfill the previous needs. So the managers try to motivate the workers by knowing at what level that person is. Firstly they achieve the psychological needs i.e. food, shelter and clothing after the completion of that need they try to get safety if they are quite safe then social need is there they want to be famous in society by doing some great job. Workers are motivated in the Star India by providing the chance to participate in the decision making, if they participate in any of the decision of the organization then the workers feel very confident and consider themselves as the important part of the organization and the managers also provide interesting jobs to the workers this way the workers Sometimes in order to improve performance the managers of Star India sets goals for the workers and tell them to complete it anyhow. The employees working in the news departments of Star India has to bring the news related to the current affairs from all around the world, anyhow they have to complete the demand of the management, this way the management keeps the workers busy in the work and the strategy results in the increased output.
The managers of Star India use many information models and computer simulation in order to make the Star India a good workplace. To improve resource allocation decisions managers uses a technique linear programming. With the help of statistical data the manager find how much the channels of Star is being watched by the public and with the help of this they try to launch their new channel or try to modify the channels if it is not being watched by the peoples. They use mathematical optimization to arrive at optimal or near optimal solution to complex decision making problems.
Operation management is used by the managers to take the responsibilities of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. The CEO's and manger's strategy is continually making Star India efficient and effective by fulfilling the customer's needs they find out what the people wants from their TV channels according to people's will and necessary the telecast the news over the channels they always find out the latest information and make it available to the world. TV serials which the star telecasts are according to the interest of the families, no vulgarity is being shown in the program that is the reason of the grand success of this type of programs. Information received by the news channels to telecast firstly the filter and investigate about the information this practice helps them not to telecast the wrong information if they did by mistake it will degrade the Star position in the market that is why they are very careful in this aspect.
The managers process the data into meaningful information and then communicate it to the different departments of the Star to make the decision. Information Technologies is being used in Star to collect the data. They get the data with the help of E-mails or phones or faxes. The managers communicate it to the different department by sitting only in one place with the help of Technology.
The workers of the Star are provided many types of software to present or prepare news to the audience.
Managing Information system keeps the messages and data of the organization safe and stops it from the corruptness. By using the technologies like internet and telecommunication managers are able to save the money as well as the precious time of the organization.
With the completion of this assignment I came to know many things related to the Star India (Satellite Television for Asian Region) like the channels of Star India, joint venture of the Star India and the different theories of management i.e. classical viewpoint, Behavioral viewpoint, and Quantitative viewpoint. I understood what these theories actually are, and many principles of management I learnt like the Fayol's principle, Taylor's principle. I also found in which way these management theories are applicable in the organization and how management of Star India develops their strategy using these management theories. I found that these theories are very helpful in the organizations. These viewpoints tell how to divide the work among the workers and how to increase the productivity of organization and many such things which are very beneficial for the organizations.
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