Business Health Check

Task 1: Objective and Drive of Subway
Objective of Subway
How Subway implement their mission that shows clearly in their slogan "eat fresh"?
S.W.O.T. Analysis of Subway
Differences between Subway and Quiznos

Task 2: Scenario of Tesco
Vision and Mission
Business Objectives of Tesco
Map of Tesco

Task 3: Evaluate and Develop Skills of Management in Subway.
Performance Review
Job Descriptions of Subway Manager
Plans for the Development of Skills for Subways' Managements and Staffs


Task 1: Objective and Drive of Subway
Objective of Subway

Strategic Goals
The carefully planned objectives that an organisation tries hard to achieve. Most senior managers will take the time to develop and declaim appropriate strategic goals for their business in order to illustrate to underling employees what their plans and vision for the company are. Such strategic goals should be achievable and should reflect a realistic assessment of the current and projected business environment.1

Subway's Corporate Mission Statement

We consistently strive to:

Provide our customers with the freshest quality products served in a clean environment by fast and friendly employees at an exceptional value.2

Create a challenging and rewarding work environment that provides our employees with an opportunity for personal growth as well as career advancement.

Have fun doing what we love to do while focusing on constant and never-ending improvement. We work toward having each customer smile or laugh at least once during their time with us.
Provide the tools and knowledge to allow entrepreneurs to compete successfully in the Fast Food industry worldwide, by consistently offering value to consumers through providing great tasting food that is good for them and made the way they want it. 3

To be the leading integrated food services group in the Asia Pacific region based on consistent quality food products and exceptional customer focused service.4

How Subway implement their mission that shows clearly in their slogan "eat fresh"?
Subway always implement their mission everywhere such as they put their Brand name and their slogan on their logo "Subway eat fresh" while they put their logo on every staff's uniform and every packaging e.g. wrappers, cups, straw package, etc.
They normally posted their vision and mission statements all around the restaurants to alert their staffs. They ensure their staffs know about their vision and mission statement clearly and also implement it into their work.
With the clear vision and mission statements stated, suppliers will also provide the most fresh or best quality products for Subway. Suppliers know what does the Subway "promised" to their customers, they wish to help to realise the promise to the customers too.
Customers will predict the expectation level and know what to expect from Subway with the concise vision and mission statements stated. This will prevent customers' over-expectation to them and lead to high level of dissatisfactions.
S.W.O.T. Analysis of Subway
Strengths Weaknesses
1. Great degree of subs customization
2. Largest fast food restaurant chain in the world by the number of outlets
3. Marketing and promotional strategies
4. Choice of healthier meals
5. Partnerships with Britain and American Heart Associations
6. Easy to join as franchisees
7. Low startup costs 1. Interior design of the outlets often looks cheap
2. High employee turnover
3. Services are not consistent from store to store
4. Too much control over franchisees
Opportunities Threats
1. Increasing demand for healthier food
2. Home meal delivery
3. Changing customer habits and new customer groups
4. Introduction of drive-thru 1. Saturated fast food markets in the developed economies
2. Trend towards healthy eating
3. Local fast food restaurant chains
4. Currency fluctuations
5. Lawsuits against Subway

Great degree of subs customisation.
Customers always like to choose and the more choices they can make about their purchase the more satisfied they are with it. Subway is better than any other large fast food chain in providing the choice of meal customisation.

Largest fast food restaurant chain in the world by the number of outlets.
The company operates 38,181 restaurants in 99 countries recently, more than McDonald's or any other fast food chain operator.

Marketing and promotional strategies.
Subway applies superior marketing techniques and promotional strategies to attract and grow their customer base. The most successful Subway's promotional offer was to offer foot longs for only $5, which became a new pricing standard of a sub. Generally, Subway always located at food heavy passages and this helps to reduce their advertising costs.

Choice of healthier meals.
Subway offers a range of low calorie, fresh and nutritious food, which you can't find in other fast food stores, at least not to such an extent. This Subway strength meets current trend of eating healthier food as they try hard to meet 6g fat or less in each sub.

Partnerships with Britain and American Heart Associations.
Subway has received certificates from both organizations that it serves health meal options, which is a great reward and differentiates the business from other fast food restaurants.

Easy to join as franchisees.
Subway doesn't own any restaurants itself so it experiences less risk and can focus its efforts on marketing and growing the franchise.

Low startup costs.
One of the reasons behind such a high growth rate of Subway stores is the low startup costs as just USD12,500. Subway stores are smaller and require less money for leasehold improvements and equipment.

Interior design of the outlets often looks cheap.
Subway restaurants lack the interior design and quality that would welcome everyone to stay and feel more comfortable than in the competitor's restaurants.
High employee turnover.
Subway Sandwich Artists job is a low paid and a low skilled job. It results in low performance and high employee turnover, which increases training costs and add to overall costs of Subway.
Services are not consistent from store to store.
The business struggles to ensure consistent services' quality throughout it stores and so a service in one store may please a customer when another may fail to do that.
Too much control over franchisees.
Despite the fact that Subway fails to ensure consistent quality throughout the stores it exerts too much control over its franchisees. This is done through the contracts that are more favourable to the franchisor. An example of such high control is seizeing of franchisee restaurants if the later one is struggling to keep them open.

Increasing demand for healthier food.
It's an opportunity upon which Subway already grows itself and could further introduce low fat, low salt and more nutritious subs.
Home meal delivery.
Subway could exploit an opportunity of delivering food to home and increase its reach to customers.
Changing customer habits and new customer groups.
Changing customer habits represent new needs that must be met by businesses. So far, Subway has only one variation of restaurants, different to its close competitor McDonald's, which tries to satisfy and reach previously untapped customer groups by introducing McCaf??, McExpress and McStop.
Introduction of drive-thru.
McDonald's already offer only drive-thru restaurants, which is a great opportunity for Subway to jump but against the style of subway.
Saturated fast food markets in the developed economies.
The fast food market in the developed countries is already overcrowded by so many fast food restaurant chains and this already proves to be a threat to Subway as it finds it hard to grow in the developed economies.
Trend towards healthy eating.
Only part of Subway's menu offers healthier choices of meals, while the rest menu is rich in salt, contains many calories and is accompanied by soft drinks. Customers who care about their food and well-being may opt out for something else rather than Subway.
Local fast food restaurant chains.
Local fast food restaurants can offer healthier food and menu that exactly represents local tastes.
Currency fluctuations.
Subway receives much of its income from foreign operations. That income has to be converted into dollars and may affect the company's profits, especially when the dollar is appreciating against other currencies and when deal with royalty and franchisee fee while part of the gross profit is diverted to main company.
Lawsuits against Subway.
Subway has been involved and lost a few lawsuits in the past because of the poor company policies regarding franchisees management. Lawsuits are expensive, time consuming and damages the firm's brand.5

Subway are able to adapt to this competitive environment as they have great degree of subs customization and various choice of healthier meals. They are the largest fast food restaurant chain in the world by the number of outlets as people are easy to join as franchisees and low startup costs. They are excellent in marketing and promotional strategies while they also partnerships with Britain and American Heart Associations.
Through the analysis, I found that they still have some growth opportunities to achieve. For example, they can provide home meal deliver and drive-thru service. They can increase the demand for healthier food while changing customer habits and new customer groups.
Differences between Subway and Quiznos
Let's take a look at two of the most highly popular fast food chains in America; Subway and Quiznos. They are both highly competitive to each other, very much like McDonald's to Burger King and Wendy's. We are going to take a look at the two warring franchises and see what the differences and similarities are. They have been battling to achieve quality and freshness providing a better value for their customers. If you wander into each of the shops to test the theory of who provides the better sub as the inviting aromas of each will compel you to feast on their subs.

Price Wise
Most of Subway's featured sandwiches cost generally around $2.59 to $3.00 for a 6" sub and for their foot longs generally costs $2.20 extra sometimes reaching a price of almost $7.00. Quiznos offers their subs at $3.49-$5 for their 6" subs and their foot longs will expand to an extra dollar for a 9" and $5.49 through up to $8.00 for a 12 inch sub. Generally, Subway offer their tasty subs at a cheaper price than Quiznos and they both are around the same price for a select few subs.
Lengths of subs Prices
Subway Quiznos
6" $2.59 - $3.00 $3.49 - $5.00
12" Extra $2.20 - $7.00 Extra $5.49 - $8.00
Subway wins the battle by offering their subs at a substantially lower price than Quiznos but Quiznos offer a size of 9" inch subs and Subway only has half-footers and foot-longs.

Taste and Visible Appeal
No doubt, when you walk into each of the stores, there is an inviting smell that compels your hunger. Especially when the smell of freshly roasted beef and steak hits your smelling senses. Both stores offer the same main courses of subs but which is better? When you walk into Quiznos and order yourself a Prime Rib and Peppercorn sub, you will notice that the sub is leaking meat with luscious sweet sauce between toasted sesame s bread.
The Subway Prime Rib Sub has a mixture of colors with the onions, green peppers and lettuce protruding from the sides of the chosen bread. Quiznos Tuskan Turkey sandwich that costs $4.39, is sandwiched between Parmesan Rolls and in between, there is the taste of cold turkey and small pieces of turkey slices. It sports little red pepper sauce and it is acceptable, but not worth rushing back for. The Subway Turkey Breast sandwich costs $3.59 and has better flavor that the bread is regular but it is slam-packed with flavors and ingredients that the bread is the least of your worries.

Kudos to these two sub restaurants who will always be battling for the best sub. In my opinion, Subway is one step ahead of Quiznos. They are both the gatekeepers of fantastic subs and offer a large array of choices in which to individually apply special ingredients. They are both accommodating to customer satisfaction, needs and wants, but it seems that Subway is the best out of the two. I have visited both Subway and Quiznos and I tried to give them a fair analysis. By my estimation Subway has the cheaper, better choices and better tasting subs. As for Quiznos, it needs to be advertised and more publicly outward.6

Task 2: Scenario of Tesco
Scenario from The Times 100 Business Case Studies

Tesco was founded in1919 by Jack Cohen from a market stall in London's East End. Today it is one of the largest retailers in the world. Tesco's core business is retailing in the United Kingdom, which provides 60% of all sales and profits. Tesco has the widest range of food of any retailer in the UK. Its two main food brands are its Finest and Everyday Value ranges, each sell over ??1 billion per year.
The position of Tesco as a leading global brand is clearly illustrated by its expansion of operations into 12 countries including China, Czech Republic, India, Malaysia, Ireland, Hungary and Poland. In 2013 Tesco employed in excess of 530,000 colleagues. This level of success does not happen by chance. Tesco's leaders have always set high standards and clear goals, never settling for anything less than the best.
Tesco's 'Every Little Helps' philosophy puts customers, communities and employees at the heart of everything it does. It prides itself on providing a great shopping experience for every customer it serves, whether in stores, online or in its many other service provisions.
Core values
Tesco's core values include a commitment to using its scale for good by being a responsible retailer. In 2010, it opened the world's first zero-carbon supermarket in Ramsey, Cambridge shire and was awarded Green Retailer of the Year at the Annual Grocer Gold Awards 2012. Tesco aims to be a zero-carbon business by 2050.
Tesco's continuing success depends on it reassessing and formulating clear business strategies. Tesco aims to improve customer loyalty and its core UK business in order to help it develop the shopping experience for its customers. It committed ??1 billion to an investment program to achieve this. Strategies to improve competitiveness were then developed. The driving forces behind these strategies are price, quality, range and innovation as well as delivering great multichannel customer service, for example, through its 'Click & Collect' service.

Vision and mission
Companies, like Tesco, that enjoy long-term success, are focused businesses. They have a core vision that remains constant while the business strategies and practices continuously adapt to a changing world. In an increasingly competitive global environment, without a clear vision a business will lack direction and may not survive. Tesco has a seven part business strategy to help it achieve its vision.
A vision is an aspirational view of where the business wants to be. It provides a benchmark for what the business hopes to achieve. Tesco is a company built around customers and colleagues. Its vision guides the direction of the organisation and the strategic decisions it makes. Tesco's vision is:
'To be the most highly valued business by: the customers we serve, the communities in which we operate, our loyal and committed colleagues and of course, our shareholders.'
Tesco's vision has five elements
Tesco's vision has five elements which describes the sort of company it aspires to be. These are to be:
' wanted and needed around the world
' a growing business, full of opportunities
' modern, innovative and full of ideas
' winners locally whilst applying our skills globally
' inspiring, earning trust and loyalty from customers, our colleagues and communities.
The vision, mission statement and goals are interrelated and state what an organisation is seeking to achieve whereas the strategies and tactics show how it will achieve them. Tesco's core purpose (mission) is simple:
'We make what matters better, together.'
Once aims are established, functional areas within a business then devise department-based strategies to ensure goals are achieved. The vision drives the business and the values are embedded throughout the strategic planning process.
Whilst a vision outlines the aspirations of senior managers, a mission statement is a general expression of the overall purpose of the business. It communicates the goals of a company to all stakeholders. The vision should inspire all stakeholders and motivate employees towards achieving its stated objectives. If well prepared, it should convince customers, suppliers and external stakeholders of its sincerity and commitment to them.
Tesco's management recognise the key role that its mission, vision and strategies play in its success and use a range of key performance indicators (KPIs) to monitor and evaluate its performance. These are explored in detail later in the case.
Whilst a vision is important, without values a business such as Tesco would struggle to remain competitive. Tesco's values are:
' No one tries harder for customers.
' We treat everyone how we like to be treated.
' We use our scale for good.
Tesco's values are vital to its success, as shown in the quote below from Group Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Philip Clarke:
'The Tesco values are embedded in the way we do business at every level. Our values let our people know what kind of business they are working for and let our customers know what they can expect from us.'
Tesco is a community-focused global business. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is at the heart of its operations. This commitment is referred to as 'Tesco in Society'. In the competitive retailing world Tesco's success relies on its values. They are not just a list of 'good attitudes' but the means to on-going success.
Tesco's approach to working with communities helps it stand out from its rivals. Its commitment to using its scale for good is demonstrated by Tesco's 'Three Big Ambitions':
' To create new opportunities for millions of young people around the world.
' To improve health and through this help tackle the global obesity crisis.
' To lead in reducing food waste globally.
These are underpinned by what Tesco calls 'The Essentials':
' We trade responsibly.
' We are reducing our impact on the environment.
' We are a great employer.
' We support our local communities.

Philip Clarke summarises Tesco's commitment to 'living' these values in the following statement:
'Tesco is an environment based on trust and respect... If customers like what we offer, they are more likely to come back and shop with us again. If the Tesco team find what we do rewarding, they are more likely to go that extra mile to help our customers. By living the values we create a good place to work where great service is delivered.'
These values drive everything Tesco does at every level and help make it different from its competitors.
A strategy is a plan which sets out how a business deploys its resources to achieve its goals. The company's values set the tone for the decision-making process. In May 2011, Tesco committed ??1 billion capital and revenue investment to improve the shopping trip for customers. It set out a seven part strategy designed to achieve its goals of being highly valued by customers and enjoying strong long-term growth. The table shows the main elements of this strategy.



Monitoring and evaluating performance
Strategy, vision, values, aims and objectives are meaningless if their impact is not monitored and evaluated. Tesco uses a range of methods to collect data and evaluate progress against targets. It uses its Club card scheme, along with telephone based research and an online panel of customers, to determine what customers want and how satisfied they are with Tesco's performance.
Its Executive Committee assess the progress of large-scale strategies. All of its business units have 'stretching targets' which are aspirational targets for certain KPIs. The performance of all business units is monitored continually and reported monthly to the board of directors. The following table shows how Tesco monitored its performance against targets using KPIs for the 2012/13 period.
These KPIs are used to assess current performance, make comparisons with previous performance and help managers respond when targets are not being met. For instance, following investigation, an explanation for narrowly missing the staff training target was given:
'Although narrowly missing this target, Tesco have also heavily invested in our colleagues in the UK this year through our 'Building a Better Tesco' plan. More than 250,000 colleagues in-store have received customer service training, with additional technical training for 36,000 colleagues.'
Monitoring healthy options for customers and colleagues supports Tesco's commitment to helping employees and customers make healthy choices and lead healthier lives. In a revolutionary scheme, using data from its Tesco Clubcard, it has developed a 'healthy little differences' tracker. This measures the health profile of a 'typical' shop by measuring the nutritional value of what customers buy. This will be used to set targets to improve customers' health by comparing how the profiles vary across different groups in society and how healthy initiatives impact on customers' shopping over time.

Tesco is one of the largest retailers in the world. This success has not come about by chance but is the result of effective leadership and management. The setting of a clear vision is central to Tesco's success, supported by a commitment to establishing and monitoring specific objectives and devising strategies to ensure these are achieved. All aspects of the business are regularly monitored and, when necessary, plans are adapted to ensure targets are ultimately met. At the heart of all Tesco does is a commitment to being a responsible retailer. This is demonstrated through its focus on its 'Three Big Ambitions' and 'The Essentials' to show how it is using its scale for good. Every decision taken considers these areas to ensure customers, communities, suppliers and staff are treated fairly and with respect. Tesco's values underpin all that Tesco does and, in turn, keeps customers satisfied with their shopping experience and loyal to the brand.
Tesco stated their vision clearly that they will try their best to be:
' wanted and needed around the world
' a growing business which full of opportunities
' modern, innovative and full of ideas
' winner locally whilst applying our skills globally
' inspiring, earning trust and loyalty from customers, our colleagues and communities

'We make what matters better, together.'

' To grow the UK core
' To be a creator of highly valued brands
' To be an outstanding international retailer in stores and online
' To grow retail services in all our markets
' To put our responsibilities to the communities we serve at the heart of what we do
' To build our team so that we create more value
' To be as strong in everything we sell as we are in food'
Business Objective of Tesco


Task 3: Evaluate and Develop Skills of Management
Performance Reviews
Why Are Performance Evaluation Important? Do They Really Work?
A performance evaluation is an opportunity for Subway's managers and employees to meet and discuss the employee's job performance, their performance goals, and organisational priorities. For employees, this process can be something they fear or look forward to. Despite being a star employee in Subway, there may be things you can still improve on, and receiving that type of feedback can make you feel like you are being put in front of a firing squad. As new generations continue to enter the Subway, the way they receive feedback varies. The performance review is a long-established process that only works if both parties are comfortable with the information that is presented. So why are they important, and do they really work?
Employee performance evaluations may seem like a lot of work with very little outcome. Subway's Human Resources department spends countless hours making sure each manager turns in their respective employee evaluations on time. Performance reviews are hard, and they are only useful if they are done right. We have come up with a few pitfalls to avoid when having a performance review with an employee.
Avoid Being Too Vague
The 10-minute performance review really doesn't work. When employers wait until the last minute to put together a performance review, they are usually short and salty. There is no substance, because everything is discussed in broad terms that don't help the Subway's employer or the employee. They are usually as brief as possible and do not provide enough specific examples about what was good or bad about an employee's performance. Stop being vague and start getting specific about what you liked and did not like in your employee's work. Performance reviews can only work when they use specific examples that will improve an employee's job performance.
Going along with our previous pitfall, Subway's employers need to spend time preparing for a performance review in order for it to be effective. If you have 10 employees that you need to give reviews to, spread them out based on hire dates and don't wait until the end of the year. Throughout their work life, keep a file or document where you can jot down specific instances of both good and bad performances and job habits. This will allow you to reflect on the specifics and write a review that matters to the employee. If you don't prepare, they are usually not going to take you seriously, and the review won't work.
Follow Up
One of the most tedious aspects of performance reviews is the bureaucratic forms that need to get filled out and dutifully and sent to HR. As part of the review, you should be setting goals for the coming year. The worst bosses forget about these goals as soon as they've completed the review. There's no quarterly review of the goals to see if the Subway's employee is on track, and there is no constant stream of feedback. Performance reviews only work if there is follow-up throughout the entire year and not just for an hour (or less for some) once a year. To be effective, the goals of the coming year have to be kept in the forefront for both Subway and their employees.
Use Employee Self-Reviews
In my experience, self-reviews are extremely helpful because they give employees a way to reflect on their own performance. Most Subway's employees tend to be harder on themselves then their boss would be when reviewing their performance. This will give the Subway more details on how their employee has performed, because they are more likely to remember everything, as opposed to a supervisor who's keeping track of 7-10 employees.
When written effectively, employee performance evaluations can be helpful to both Subway and their employees. For the Subway, it helps create a benchmark on an employee's productivity, and it provides structure for a pay-for-performance system. It also creates assurance that if an employee is performing in a subpar way, they will have the information necessary to take the proper steps of reprimanding or terminating. For the Subway's employee, it provides feedback on how they can improve, what areas they shine in, and, aside from getting a raise, it documents their performance as it relates to getting their next big promotion.
Performance reviews are important because they help each side of the table gather thoughts and become more familiar with the areas that need improvement and those that are working well. If done right, reviews can be one of the best tools for developing an employee's career with a company. Use these tips we've come up with to avoid the pitfalls of a bad performance review.7

A successful performance review can helps Subway to remain competitive among all the competitors. It can helps to resolve internal obstacles such as challenges, weaknesses and barriers in Subway. Examples of internal obstacles that Subway meet such as management and staffs problem, communication of plans or objectives to staffs, e.g. mission or vision of Subway. It can helps Subway all managerial employees improve their leadership and management skills.

Job Description of Subway Manager

Position Summary
The Manager performs and directs overall restaurant management. Directs staff to ensure that food safety, product preparation, and cleanliness standards are maintained. Maintains standards of restaurant safety and security. Recruits staff and oversees training program. Responsible for inventory and money control systems ' may establish inventory schedules. Responsible for local marketing initiatives ' may contact prospective customers to promote sales. Maintains business records. Exceptional customer service is a major component of this position. 8

1. Completes and posts the staff work schedules.
2. Recruits, rewards and terminates staff as needed.
3. Communicates changes of food preparations formulas, standards, etc. to staff.
4. Ensures that all local and national health and food safety codes are maintained and company safety and security policy are followed.
5. Maintains business records as outlined in the SUBWAY?? Operations Manual. Analyzes business records to increase sales.
6. Supports local and national marketing initiatives.
7. Identifies and contacts prospective customers to promote sales.
8. Plans special events and promotions.
9. Completes University of SUBWAY?? courses as directed
Customer Focus
' Develop a customer driven culture that supports outstanding customer service.
' Develop and maintain a sales-focused climate, focusing on suggestive selling and growing guest check averages.
' Instill proactive customer support in the store teams via ongoing coaching and training of all team members. 2. Leadership and Talent Management
' Recruit, qualify, select, hire and develop effective and engaged Restaurant Assistant Managers and Restaurant Associates.
' Train and coach the Restaurant Assistant Manager and Restaurant Associates to ensure that they are confidently able to perform all job duties.
' Develop and support a high energy work climate that maximizes the potential of all Restaurant Employees and exemplifies the Corporation's commitment to excellence.
Restaurant Operational Standards
' Meet all food service brand requirements.
' Maintain company and customer expectations by providing appealing restaurant conditions.
' Disseminate corporate communication, policies and practices to Restaurant Employees; solicit feedback to share with both the Restaurant District Manager and District Manager.
Financial Accountability
' Track and report all changes in the business environment such as changes in traffic patterns, economic development, competitor openings and closings, and customer buying preferences.
' Analyze financial performance of the restaurant and work with the Store Manager, Restaurant District Manager and District Manager to create action plans to improve restaurant performance.
' Partner with the Store Manager to maximize profitability in all aspects of the business. 9
Plans for the Development of Skills for Subways' Managements and Staffs

Planning of an evaluation

Purpose to plan a performance review for Subway:
' Recognise and document the Subway's strengths and achievements.
' Reinforce positive performance in Subway.
' Identify areas where performance improvement is needed.
' Identify Subway employees' career and individual development needs.
' Document poor performance or weakness in Subway that may lead to corrective action.
' Facilitate Subway's employees accountability for their performance.
' Give the Subway's employees an opportunity to comment on his or her job performance.
' Help the Subway's employees assume accountability for the job and her or his performance.
' Establish customer-focused service as it relates to the mission of the Subway and to the public.
' Provide the basis for determining pay increases in Subway.13

Conclusion, Subways plan the performance review for their business when their business is bad or usually done quarterly per year. Performance review normally done to identify and improve their weaknesses or GAP of their business and to achieve their intended goals by evaluate all Subway managerial employees. Subway done their performance review by following SMARTASS - specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time bound, agreed, stimulating, stretching.

Design of an evaluation
Qualitative Methods
Qualitative methods are open-ended and result in descriptions of problems, behaviours or events. They are especially valuable at the formative stage of evaluation when programs are pilot testing proposed procedures, activities, and materials. They can provide narrative descriptions of people's thoughts and opinions about their experiences, attitudes, and beliefs without prejudicing participants with the evaluator's own opinions. They also allow the evaluator to judge the intensity of people's preference for one item or another. These measures provide the 'stories' that illustrate the nature of the problem addressed. Armed with knowledge about the cause, program staff can usually correct problems before major damage is done. Examples of qualitative methods include:
' Focus groups
' Open-ended questions on a survey or questionnaire
' Logs, journals, diaries and/or essays
' Stories/Case studies
' Participant observations/field notes
' Document review: examining written records such as logs, correspondence,
' meeting minutes, or news articles or other published accounts
In this section, we describe three methods of conducting qualitative research: personal interviews, focus groups, and participant-observation.
Personal Interviews
In-depth personal interviews with broad, open-ended questions are especially useful when the evaluator wants to understand either the strengths and weaknesses of a new or modified program before it is in effect or the cause of a problem should one develop after the program is in effect. For example, Subway's manager interview the employees personally to understand how effective of a new or modified program to employees.
Focus Groups
Focus groups serve much the same function as personal interviews. The main difference is that, with focus groups, the questions are asked of groups. Ideally these groups comprise four to eight people who are likely to regard each other as equals. For example, Subway's manager of each branch have a focus group during morning brief. Several focus groups should be conducted because different combinations of people yield different perspectives to develop a good understanding of whatever investigated situation.
Evaluation by participant-observation involves having members of the evaluation team participate (to the degree possible) in the event being observed, look at events from the perspective of a participant, and make notes about their experiences and observations. Aspects to observe include physical barriers for participants, smoothness of program operation, areas of success, and areas of weakness. For example, Subway hired mystery shopper to every branch quarterly to observe the customer services and also the food quality in Subway.

Who To Interview, Invite to Focus Groups, or Observe:
Subway select people similar to evaluating their program's methods, procedures, activities, or materials as their program is trying to reach. Indeed, you could even select members of the target population itself, if that is possible. They are the people most likely to provide information about aspects of the program that need correction.
The larger and more diverse the target population, the more interviews, focus groups, or observations are needed. In all cases, the more interviews, observations, or focus groups you conduct, the more likely you are to get an accurate picture of the situation you are investigating.11

Quantitative Methods
Quantitative methods are ways of gathering objective data that can be expressed in numbers such as counts or frequencies, rates or percentages, or other statistics, e.g., a count of the people with whom a program had contact or the percentage of change in a particular behavior by the target population. Quantitative methods are used during process, impact, and outcome evaluation. Occasionally, they are used during formative evaluation to measure, for example, the level of participant satisfaction with the Subway's new training program.
Examples of quantitative methods include:
' Surveys
' Questionnaires that ask close-ended questions such as pre- and post-tests
' Performance tests
' Clinical tests, such as urine and blood tests
' Observation checklists
' Archival research that provide statistical data such as from local, state or federal databases, agency service records, school records, and police and juvenile court records which already exists. 12
I preferred to use the qualitative methods to do the performance review in Subway as qualitative methods are open ended. Qualitative methods are adds more in-depth and detailed information to a structured survey. Qualitative methods are able to monitor the performance review by including participants' current experience, skills and abilities in technical, operational or managerial. Qualitative methods are able to indicate the effect of current performance on the business and also assess the re-skilling or up-skilling needs and clear targets set. Qualitative methods are help when linking skills targets to business targets, advice and training. These help management make informed judgements to their business.
By the way, I will not be using quantitative methods as quantitative methods are close-ended and self-report may result in biased or untruthful responses. Quantitative methods are results in data that may provide a general picture but lack in depth. The data doesn't provide the 'full story'. Attritions between the employees or management are also a problem for analysis. Costs and benefits of using quantitative methods are not equivalent as quantitative methods can be quite expensive when conducting mail or telephone surveys.
Sample Performance Development Plan Form

Employee Name:
Reason for Evaluation: Quarterly / Other?
Job Description:

Performance Goals:
List the employee's most important work performance goals for the quarter.
Specific Duty / Goal / Tools Needed for Goal / Completion Date:


Additional Tools or Training Needed:


Discussion and Measurement:



Personal and Professional Developmental Goals:
List the employee's most important personal and professional developmental goals for the quarter.
Specific Goal / How will we know it is being achieved? / Tools Needed for Goal / Completion Date:


Additional Tools or Training Needed:

Discussion and Measurement:

Employee Comments:


Employee Suggestions for Supervisor or Departmental Development:


Date for Next Development Meeting: (Schedule quarterly)

Employee's Signature:
Supervisor's Signature:
Implement of a performance review
Seminar - Managers of all Singapore Subway franchises will be invite to attend a seminar. The CEO of Subway will give a talk about the Subway's current weaknesses to all managers. Participants have to fill in the performance review form to investigate the problems or weaknesses and suggest for improvements.
Electronic performance review - All the Subway franchises managers will receive an e-mail which clearly identified the current weaknesses of Subway and request them to fill in a performance review form through online. They need to sign in the Subway homepage by using their own user ID. After they sign in, they can complete the performance review form electronically.
Orientation/Induction - An orientation or induction will be conduct in each Subway branches to every manager during the morning brief to brief through the Subway's current weaknesses. All managers are require to fill in the performance review form after the brief.

Review Process of a performance review
The timeline for the collection of information - The headquarter of Subway may required at least 2 weeks to collect all the performance reviews from the franchises all around the world.
Analyse information - Director of operations of the Subway will analyse the problems or the weaknesses of Subway such as the decoration and look of the franchises is said to be old an outdated and customer satisfaction level is not the same across the franchises. After the analyse, the Director of operations will convert the data into meaningful information as a report for Chief Operating Officer (COO).
Who will read the information? - Chief Operating Officer (COO) will read the report and decide to make some improvements on the current weaknesses of the Subway.
Implement change - The Subway managers will receive a mission to make improvement in Subway, for examples renovate the certain outdated franchises, use the Key Performance Indicators (KPI) to indicate the performance of all the franchises to make sure all the Subway franchises remain their standards.

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