Global leadership which requires a systemic view and addressing diverse economic, social and environmental issues, also brings vitality and new opportunities to an organization through innovation, talent engagement and cost savings. But, not much is under-stood about how leaders and organizations deal with the expanded and integrated principles of global leader-ship . In this paper we discuss on the leadership practices, policies, strategies and systems of companies recognized for their Global Leadership efforts. Specifically, it reports on eight core leadership domains that successfully enable global responsi-bility:
1. Developing globally responsible vision, strategies and policies
2. Operationalizing global responsibility
3. Consistent support of top management
4. Communicating global responsibility
5. Engaging with stakeholders and across boundaries
6. Empowering employees to act responsibly
7. Establishing performance and accountability processes
8. Pursuing ethical actions for global responsibility
Following considerations have been observed for organization embarking on the path to global responsibility and compe-tencies ,
Leadership practices play a significant role in establishing how an organization's culture supports ' or hinders ' global re-sponsibility efforts. As a result development of leadership competencies and capabilities is critical, both at the individual and organizational levels. Leadership for global responsibility goes beyond setting a vision and goals. Which involves configura-tion of resources, development of supporting policies, implementation of globally responsible decision making criteria, set-ting personal examples, stakeholder engagement and alliances, and development of a globally responsible mindset.
The journey to global responsibility involves challenges most organizations have never experienced. Facing these challenges requires leaders to be agile, think in new ways, ask the right questions and be comfortable not having all the answers.
Global Leadership involves corporate social responsibility, sustainability, corporate citizenship, corporate stewardship, and the triple bottom line (people-planet-profit). Going beyond labels or definitions, the idea of global leadership suggests busi-nesses have a duty and a strategic interest in innovation and in integrating the interests of their stakeholders into all aspects of their business operations., which are more than just profit-seeking entities. They have a vested interest in generating positive outcomes and limiting any detrimental impact. While the 'what' of global Leadership is well defined, little is known about 'how' to implement the triple bottom line effectively or how to identify the relevant leader-ship practices. Conceptual approaches also offer no recognition of the individual or organizational challenges encountered when implementing a global strategy or when developing a culture of responsibility. Many organizations find that the right kind of leadership is a key challenge when developing workable global responsibility strategies, redesigning organizational systems and processes,
When one talks about Effective global leadership following thoughts arises,
having lived in more than one country.
having traveled to other countries.
speaking more than one language fluently.
managing a globally diverse team.
having experienced an international assignment.
having been schooled abroad.
Most people would say 'true' to the items above. The question arises that after all, how does one become globally effective without these types of global experiences? Or, are these necessary / desirable, or are these insufficient ?
Thomas Friedman first told us that the world is becoming flatter , it would be an incredibly huge understatement. To vali-date this notion one has to travel abroad or note the expansion of corporations around the world. And, with this increasing flattening is the fact that, to effectively conduct business in this new world it would require a more different kind of leader than ever before, who will not only have to be generally effective in the traditional skills expected but also with additional knowledge, skills and above all mindset to navigate through the complexities brought on by moving beyond one's traditional borders.
There has been a lot of research on the requirements of the new global leader, pointing out both these new skills as well as the experiences necessary to prepare people to take on this challenge. The most important attribute required for effective global leadership is rather a new perspective called a global mindset, for which we have to look towards global workforce trends.
2. GLOBAL WORK FORCE TRENDS
These trends can be neatly summarized into three broad headings:
2. Environmental and Social; and
3. Business and Industry.
It should be noted that Centers of economic activity will shift profoundly, not just globally, but also regionally. There is little question that the world has embarked on a massive realignment of economic activity. Public-sector activities will balloon, making productivity gains essential. A new levels of efficiency and creativity from the public sector never seen before is required . As a consequence of economic liberalization, , capital market developments, demographic shifts and technologi-cal advances, today Asia (excluding Japan) accounts for about 15 percent of world GDP, while Western Europe accounts for more than 30 percent. Within the next 20 years the two will nearly converge. The story is not simply about the march to Asia. Shifts within regions are as significant as those occurring across regions. And, without clear productivity gains, the pension and health care burden will drive taxes to stifling proportions.
Environmental and social
Technological connectivity is on a continuing transformation ,which affects the way people live and interact. For many companies and governments, global labor and talent strategies will become equally important as global sourcing and manu-facturing strategies.and the battlefield for talent will shift..We are at the early, stage of this technology revolution. More transformational than technology itself is the shift in behavior that it enables. We work not just globally but also instantane-ously. We are forming communities and relationships in new ways.Ongoing shifts in labor and talent will be far more pro-found than the widely observed migration of jobs to low-wage countries. The shift to knowledge-intensive industries high-lights the importance and scarcity of well-trained talent. The increasing integration of global labor markets, however, is opening up vast new talent sources. The 33 million university-educated young professionals in developing countries is more than double the number in developed countries.
Business and industry
Nontraditional business models are flourishing, often coexisting in the same market and sector space in response to changing market regulation and the advent of new technologies. Corporate borders are becoming more blurred as interlinked 'ecosys-tems' of suppliers, producers, and customers emerge. Bigger, more complex companies demand new tools to run and man-age them. Improved technology and statistical-control tools have given rise to new management approaches that make even mega-institutions viable. Highly sophisticated software and decision-making techniques algorithms are increasingly used by today's Global business leaders to run their organizations. Scientific management is moving from a skill that creates competitive advantage to an ante that gives companies the right to play the game.
Management will transform from the techinique of art to more of science and the days of 'gut instinct' management style will vanish and lead to new way of global industry structures and will capitalize on these transformations.
4. DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS BEYOND 2020
From 1990 onwards the tidal wave of immigration to the USA has affected just about every corner of America, from large city to small. Due to slowdown in the population and workforce in the developed countries we will see the migration of the workforce from developing countries to developed countries. The global economy will become a global workforce. There will be no clear tipping point and, indeed, the global workforce is really already here. The signs of this global workforce are all around us. Employment in foreign-owned or affiliated companies in the USA alone grew by 32 percent just between 1991 and 2000, to almost 6.5 million workers.
In addition to this , the impact of the Age Wave will be relatively uneven across the globe. By 2050, nearly 1.5 billion, or 16.3 percent of the world's population, will be aged 65 or older (three times its current size). But, by 2025, China will have more than 200 million people aged 65 and over, and by 2050 more than 300 million ' more than the current size of the US population. The median age for the world in the last half century has hovered around 24; it is over 25 now, but by 2050 it will be just under 44. In most developed nations, the median age for the population will be over 51, with Germany and Japan averaging 53 to 55.
In summary, the world's population is aging, which will yield relatively limited skilled labor in the future. Population distri-bution is rapidly changing, with most increasing in previously under-developed markets. As organizations expand into these new markets, the global workforce is today's reality. International sourcing of labor is rapidly becoming a necessity to deal with local shortages. The world is indeed becoming flat due to vast enhancements in technology, transportation and the interdependence of a global economy. There is little question that isolationism is the death knell for organizational survival. In this context the role of the Global leadership is very critical.
5. WHAT IS GLOBAL LEADERSHIP?
For the success of an Organization Leadership is extremely important in this globalized economy. In the present day scenario it is necessary to deal with global economy on day to day basis, majority of these leaders are not trained / educated to deal with complexity of the global environment and the challenges.
The literature on global leadership provides many articles that states traits, characteristics, and attitudes of successful global leaders ; but few attempt to lay a foundation on how to actually develop individuals into global leaders (Hall, Zhu, & Yan, 2001). The lack of research in this area is apparent and it mirrors the void of organizations, as 85% of Fortune 500 execu-tivesbelieve that their organization lacks capable global leaders (Gregersen, Morrison, & Black, 1998;Morrison, 2000). With the increasingly global environment, leaders are exposed to many complex challenges and what we know about leadership theory and development may no longer be effective in this global context (Robinson & Harvey, 2008). Sloan, Hazucha, and Van Katwyk (2003) asserted that global leadership development should be part of the strategic plan of any organization that wants to flourish in the global market.
Various models are proposed for Global leader development skills , Of these the following model discusses the three steps for Global leader development skills i.e., Leaders need to
develop a global mindset,
develop a self-authored identity, and
develop an adaptation worldview.
In addition to these challenging developmental activities, the individuals need to develop psychological capital to facilitate their global leadership development process. Thus, psychological capital is added as a moderating variable in the model, which means that individuals who have hope, efficacy, resiliency, and optimism will be more likely develop a global mindset, a self-authored identity, and cultural sensitivity. Figure 1 depicts a summary of the model
Figure 1. A Developmental Model for Global Leaders.
In the following chapters we discuss the Global leadership concept organized into five sections. The first reports a brief review of the literature on global leadership. The second explores the role of a global mindset in developing global leaders. The third explores the role of constructive development theory, specifically self- authored identity, and how that contributes to the development of a global leader. The fourth examines the role of intercultural sensitivity, specifically an adaptation worldview, in the development of a global leader. The fifth investigates the role of psychological capital in the process of global leadership development.
4.1. GLOBAL LEADERSHIP
Global leadership can also be defined as being capable of operating effectively in a global environment while be-ing respectful of cultural diversity (Harris, Moran, & Moran, 2004, p. 25).Hollenbeck (2001) argued that there are six per-spectives scholars while studying global leadership i.e.,
Viewing global leaders as working across cultural and national boundaries;
Viewing global leadership as cross-cultural leadership;
Viewing global leadership as expatriate leadership;
Examining the traits, motivators, attitudes, skills, and personal background to build a profile of what an ideal global leader would look like;
Arguing that leadership literature doesn't differentiate between global and domestic leaders; and finally,
Looking at adult learning literatures.
According to Sloan et al. (2003), there is a shortage of globally developed talent. Graen and Hui (1999) argued that there are many difficulties in developing global leaders; however, it is a necessary endeavor if organizations are to succeed in this global environment. Beyond the difficulties already listed, McCall (2001) stated that developing global perspective is a de-cidedly unnatural act, you have to be forced. (p. 304). McCall added it should be part of the organization's business strate-gy. Many argue that global mindset development is related to the development of a global leader (Kedia & Mukherji, 1999).
4.2. GLOBAL MINDSET
In global leadership literature, global mindset is used to describe many things such as skills, attitudes, compe-tencies, behaviors, strategies, and practices (Levy, Beechler, Taylor, & Boyacigiller, 2007). One thing that scholars seem to agree on is that having a global mindset is necessary to be an effective leader in the global environment (Levy et al., 2007).
The seminal work on global mindset is the work of Perlmutter (1969), which made the distinction between three orientations managers have used while managing a multinational corporation: ethnocentric (home country orientation), polycentric (host country orientation), and geocentric (world orientation). His work on geo-centrism became the founda-tion of the construct of global mindset.
While Perlmutter (1969) looked at global mindset at the organizational level, Rhinesmith(1992) described global mindset at the individual level. He defined a global mindset as an individual's state of being that allows leaders to look at the world with a broad perspective, analyzing its trends and opportunities. Kefalas (1998) proposed a framework of global mindset that included two variables, conceptualization (a person who has a global view of the world) and contextualiza-tion (a person's capacity to adapt to the local environment) One who has a high score in these two variables are considered as Most global and one who has low scores on these variables are considerd as Least global. Arora, Jaju, Kefalas, and Perenich (2004) tested Kefalas' (1998) framework in the textile industry and concluded that two different skills seem to be the most relevant for developing a global mindset: intercultural sensitivity and global business knowledge.
Kedia and Mukherji (1999) stated that managers, in order to become global, need to change their paradigm and mindset to think globally, which is more complex. Murtha, Lenway, and Bagozzi (1998) operationalized global mindset in terms of managers cognitive process of international strategy and organization.
Gupta and Govindarajan (2002) proposed a conceptual framework of global mindset that has been described individually and organizationally, in which they define global mindset as a combination of an awareness and openness to cultures and markets and the ability to make sense of its complexities. Their framework included two variables, integration (ability to integrate diversity across cultures and markets ) and differentiation (openness to diversity across cultures and markets). Gupta and Govindarajan proposed that , scores high in integration and differentiation mean that an organization or a person has a global mindset.
Bouquet (2005) reported that there are three overarching behaviors related to a global mindset. i.e.,
The capacity to process and analyze global business information.
The capacity to develop relationships with key stakeholders around the world. and
The capacity to use globally relevant information while making decisions for the organization.
It is apparent that global mindset development should be a key central focus for global leadership development. Clapp-Smith and Hughes (2007) set out to investigate how global mindset is developed by using a grounded theory ap-proach. They reported that boundary testing ,cognitive shifts, curiosity, relationship building, organizational mindset, lan-guage skills, personal history, and authenticity have been proposed to be determinants of a global mindset.
4.3. CONSTRUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT
Based on constructive theory, Kegan (1982) argued that the method by which individuals understand reality de-velops over time.He proposed that the development of an individual occurs in 5 measurable qualitative shifts in percep-tions, or orders of consciousness. Each order of consciousness is subject to specific rules, which direct how a person makes meaning; however, the person is unaware of this system. At the moment when individuals become aware of their meaning making system, they will be able to think critically about it, which leads them to shift to another stage. These shifts occur because of life experiences, crisis, or other precipitated events. A development does not occur because an individual becomes more knowledgeable, but because he or she makes sense of the world differently .
Lewis and Jacobs also proposed that selection methodologies should seek to match the employee's constructive capacity to the complexity of the job, while leadership development programs should focus on stretching individuals beyond their constructive capacity with the help of a mentor, who can assist in the transition to a new way of viewing the world. It should also be noted that individuals who have a self-authored identity are more likely be more effective leaders in modern organizations because they are more accountable, use appropriate influence tactics, embrace change, and are more comfortable with complexity.
Thus Global leaders are those individuals who make decisions based on their own created value system. Ac-cordingly, organizations should either select individuals who have self-authored identities, or should select activities that are appropriately matched to the developmental level of the individuals. Based on the results of the interview, individuals can have targeted developmental activities for their continuous development. For example, creating situations that are ambiguous and challenging have been proposed to make individuals shift from one stage to the other .
4.4. INTER CULTURAL SENSITIVITY
Within the globalized economy, increased attention has been placed on cross-cultural studies of leadership (studies that compare two or more cultures), especially with the boost of multinational organizations . Furthermore, the emergence of supranational corporations as a response to the globalization efforts has posed a big challenge to the prevalent culture and governance practices of nations. Many reviews have been conducted looking at the literature of cross-cultural leadership , demonstrating how important this research segment is for organizational studies. Groundbreaking research has been also been conducted primarily with the GLOBE project (House et al.).
However, most of the research focused on middle management characteristics, cultural characteristics, and lead-ership styles. Studies have found that cultural characteristics impact leadership in organizations, but it is relatively unex-plored how global leaders acquire the capacity to lead in extremely diverse environments (Oddou, Mendenhall, & Ritchie, 2000). While cross-cultural skills are necessary for a global leader to be effective, global leaders need to have a stronger understanding of how multiple differing cultures can impact global business decisions and relations (Adler, 2001; Estienne,1997). For instance, a global leader living in Brazil has to negotiate with executives in SouthAfrica and Japan. This global leader needs to be culturally sensitive in order to be successful.However, if that leader only receives culture-specific trainings, he or she is more likely to miss nuances of each culture, which can lead to many problems (Estienne, 1997).
Hammer, Bennett, and Wiseman (2003),stated that individuals who are inter-culturally competent not only understand cross-cultural differences, but also cultural nuances that are often hard to pick out. These skills seem particularly central for global leaders. Bennett's model is developmental in nature, which means that training opportunities for global leaders can be developed.
Bennett's (1993) model was created to explain how people interpret cultural differences. Bennett identified six stages that people move through in their acquisition of intercultural competence. And it also adopts a constructivist ap-proach wherein experience is a function of how one makes meaning of events. In other words, the extent to which culture differences will be experienced is a function of how complexity can be construed. Each stage in this worldview structure generates new and more complicated issues to be resolved in intercultural encounters.
The first stage (Denial) is characterized by individuals experiencing their own culture as the only authentic one.
The second stage (Defense) is characterized by individuals experiencing their own culture as the only realistic one.
The third stage (Minimization) is characterized by individuals experiencing their own culture as universal.
The fourth stage (Acceptance) is characterized by individuals that experience their own culture as just one of many.
The fifth stage (Adaptation) is characterized by individuals that experience another culture and from this experi-ence are able to behave in appropriate ways in that culture.
The sixth stage (Integration) is characterized by individuals that experience their selves as expanded to include the move-ment in and out of worldviews. Individuals at this stage are dealing with issues related to their own 'cultural marginality, as they construe their identity at the margins of two or more cultures and central to none.
4.5. PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL
Drawing from positive psychology, positive organizational behavior (POB) emerged to apply positive oriented strengths and psychological capacities in the workplace. These strengths and capacities can be measured and developed (Luthans, 2002). Four distinct variables have been proposed to represent these strengths and capacities:i.e., Hope, Effica-cy, Resiliency, and Optimism.
Hope isdefined as a positive motivational state that is based on an interactively derived sense of successful (a) agency (goal-oriented energy), and (b) pathways (planning to meet goals). According to this definition, hope has three major conceptual foundations: agency, pathways, and goals..
Self-efficacis defined as the individual's conviction about his or her abilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive re-sources, and courses of action needed to successfully execute a specific task within a given context. This definition was based on the extensive research on efficacy by Bandura (1997). He argued that task mastery, vicarious learning or modeling, social persuasion, and psychological or physiological arousal could develop efficacy.
Resiliency is defined as the ability of an individual to bounce back from hardship, failure, and setback
Optimistic person is defined as one who makes internal, stable, and global attributions regarding positive events, but attributes external, unstable, and specific reasons for negative events.
5. PSYCHOLOGICALCAPITAL AS A CORE CONSTRUCT
Taken together these four variables describe Psychological Capital (PsyCap) as a distinct higher-order construct. All PsyCap variables meet the criteria for inclusion in POB by including variables that are state like as opposed to trait like because the variables are based on positive capacities,which are theoretical, and have a valid measurement (Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007). Thus, Luthans, Youssef, and Avolio (2007) defined PsyCap as:
An individual's positive psychological state of development that is characterized by (1) having confidence (self-efficacy) to take on and put in the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks; (2) making a positive attribu-tion (optimism) about succeeding now and in the future; (3) persevering towards goals and, when necessary, redi-recting paths to goals (hope) in order to succeed; and (4) when beset any problems and adversity, sustaining and bouncing back and even beyond (resiliency) to attain success. (p. 3)
As a higher order construct, there is an underlying theme between the variables that represent a positive assessment of situa-tions and the resources available along with the prosperity one can achieve based on personal effort, perseverance, and striving to achieve excellence (Luthans et al.).
PsyCap has been proposed to increase competitive advantage and it can be correlated with performance in an international environment. Luthans, Avey, Avolio, Norman, & Combs (2006) developed and demonstrated a psychological capital intervention to increase PsyCap in the participants.and also there is a significant relationship between PsyCap with performance and satisfaction. Furthermore, they reported that PsyCap mediated the relationship between supportive climate and performance. PsyCap mediates the relationship between cognitive capacity and cultural intelligence in the development of a global mindset. In accordance, it is argued that PsyCap will aid the development of an effective global leader, as individuals will have hope, efficacy, resiliency, and optimism when faced with challenging developmental characteristics such as development of a global mindset, a self-authored identity, and a cultural adaptation worldview.
A global Leader should also develop the following skills
1. thinking globally;
2. appreciate cultural diversity;
3. should be technological savvy;
4. build partnerships and alliances; and
5. share leadership.
in addition to those typically associated with overall general leadership skills, such as, among others, managing change, strategic thinking, decision-making, enabling teams, managing results, etc. So, while it is likely that general leadership skills are easily transferred into a global leadership context, this does not mean a leader who is effective in a domestic setting will necessarily be effective in a foreign setting.
6. GLOBAL LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
Many people who have studied global leadership, as well as leadership development in general, have concluded that a multi-dimensional approach is the most effective way to develop effective global leadership. These methods reduce to four overall approaches:
3. EXPERIENCE; AND
This step involves the introspection and self-awareness. It is the first step in developing global leaders so that they can get an accurate perspective of their interest, concerns, and current level of cultural literacy, Because Global leaders need to be know where they are on the continuum of both beliefs and knowledge in order to focus their development areas on their relative deficiencies.
This step invvolves thinking about the subject of leadership , culture and globalization. It focuses on the content and knowledge required to be effective in a global setting. Leaders need to understand the facts about different countries and cultures, business procedures, and local information about customs and practices, both from a social and business perspec-tive. They need to be educated on these and be able to readily transport this information across borders.
This step involves acting or doing. It focuses on the organization and context,If guided properly, experience is said to be the best teacher, that is, learning from experiences that are meaningful, relevant and applied. It is about learning how the organi-zation does business in other parts of the world.
This step involves interacting by focusing on people and roles. It means having exposure from the people and mentors who have 'been there, done that' so that it will be critical to assimilate quickly and properly .
However, experience is the best way from which cultural lessons are likely to be most. That's why expatriate expe-riences are rated as the most useful when it comes to learning a culture ' in fact almost four times more than simply international experiences and 15 times more than domestic experiences (see McCall et al., 1988).Further there is a difference in the areas of competence of successful global executives for those who have and have not lived abroad. this value of living abroad was also confirmed by the Segil et al. (2003) study. For those who lived abroad the areas of competence included such areas as welcoming strangers, learning languages, spirit of adventure, valuing differences, sensitivity to context, and creating new alternatives, The areas of competence for those who had not lived abroad were distinctly different, illustrated by such things as inner purpose, focus on goals, coping, clarity of communication, and exposing intentions ' all admirable but falling short of those more likely to be valuable for a global assignment.
This indicates that in order to enable an effective global leadership mindset. Both the leader and the organization must work together , only either one of this will not be able to yield successful global leaders.
For a leader to become an effective Global leader , the most important thing the leader can do, as noted above, is to learn from experience, which may involve participation in task forces or start-ups, or interaction with bosses, peers and mentors. In addition to this Global Leaders can also proactively learn the language and customs of the countries they experience, participate in many diverse meetings, communicate with a diverse group of business leaders, and immerse themselves in other cultures by living there or frequently visiting.
But, it is not just up to the leader to develop his/her global leadership capability. It is also up to the organization to set the strategic global agenda; that is, to communicate to all employees the strategic intent and interest of being a truly global com-pany. They can also provide clarity on what kinds of global executives with what kinds of skills are needed strategically, break the country-based glass-ceiling by hiring expats into vacant positions, identify, recruit and assess candidates as early as possible, and provide international perspectives and exposure early in careers with stretch assignments.
The organization's duty is to facilitate this cultural assimilation by providing employees with baseline appropriate levels of oversight , cross-cultural information, support and feedback, creating opportunities for reflection, fostering an open culture built on personal relationships, small group loyalty and diverse leadership teams, and providing access to internationally experienced coaches, mentors, and role models.
7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
From the above discussion we can conclude that, There is necessity of correlation between Individual and Or-ganization to succeed in the global market context and also company's vision and values must show global consistency. A need for global consistency would favor policies that accentuate formalization, standardization and global dictates, whereas a need for local responsiveness would favor flexibility, customization and delegation.
A global mindset can be the new competitive advantage in the marketplace, so a global corporation needs a high stock of global mindset But, at the end of the day, as far as development is concerned, it must be driven by an organization's global business strategy, although what needs to be learned is not all business-related. Global leaders should learn their trade the same as other executives do, but they must take much more responsibility for their own development. It is critical to remember the quest for a global mindset may never end. The complex and dynamic world in which we live provides unlimited opportunities for exploring the many linkages across our wide world of diversity.
Perhaps just experiencing that having lived in more than one country. having traveled to other countries. speaking more than one language fluently. managing a globally diverse team. having experienced an international assignment .and having been schooled abroad, does not guarantee effective global leadership. In addition to these a Global leader should also acquire Global mindset that will enable leadership effectiveness in a global capacity.
In this paper, a developmental model for global leaders was articulated. This model includes global mindset, constructive development, intercultural sensitivity, and psychological capital theories. Research behind the model was drawn from many fields, including global leadership, expatriate leadership, cross-cultural leadership, adult learning, developmental models, and positive organizational behavior theory.
While much of the literature on development of global leaders emphasizes that global leaders have some traits such as openness (Hall et al., 2001), cultural awareness (Adler, 1997), and cognitive capacity (Dalton, 1998), they do not offer theoretical developmental strategies that can be measured and researched. The aim of this paper is to argue for further de-velopment of a potential global leader. Many organizations are setting up individuals for failure by not paying attention to the developmental strategies listed above.
One important contribution of this paper is the ability to actually apply existing measures to the development of global leaders. Thus, we can measure the current stages in intercultural sensitivity and constructive development theory that potential global leaders are current ly at and target training, trips, and other relevant programs to meet these individu-als developmental needs. For example, individuals who already have an ethnorelative worldview will not benefit from the training that emphasizes differences between cultures. However, they may benefit more by going abroad for an assign-ment and starting to prepare for the necessary job roles. On the other hand, if an individual is in denial of cultural differ-ences, the in-house training may be appropriate. If individuals in the denial stage go abroad, they may be unsuccessful and could be unable to cope with the complexity of the environment. This may lead them to become frustrated and act in a way that could hinder various stakeholders. Furthermore, we can measure leaders global mindset and PsyCap
Another important contribution of this paper is examining the effect of PsychologicalCapital on global leadership development. It was proposed that an individual who has hope, efficacy, resiliency, and optimism will take advantage of developmental activities and will be more successful in their development journey. Furthermore, global leaders that have high PsyCap will be more successful than global leaders that have a low PsyCap. Thus, PsyCap trainings should be in place for individuals that are striving to be global leaders or are global leaders.
Finally, this paper makes a potent contribution by extending the literature on global leadership using develop-mental theories. The global leadership field should move away from trait-like research to a more developmental approach .It is argued that for some individuals the development may take a lifetime, for others not so long. Some of the develop-mental activities for the three proposed key constructs for global leadership development may overlap.
For example, someone who has a global mindset will most likely have or be close to having a cultural adaptation worldview. The same is true that an individual who has a cultural adaptation worldview, will most likely also have a self-authored identity.
Thus, while developing developmental activities, it is important to take the connections between the variables in-to consideration to make sure the programs are truly individualized and effective. Organizations should invest time and money in the proper training and development of global leaders.
Future research should test the propositions argued in this manuscript. If effective global leaders have a global mindset, a self-authored identity, and a cultural adaptation worldview and domesticleaders do not, we can assert that the developmental model proposed in this paper should be used as a guide for developing Effective Global leaders
This paper is prepared as a term paper for the Human Resourse Management Subject in Masters degree programme and would like to thank Proffessor Akhilesh for valuable insights regarding the Globl Leadership topic. Also I would like to thank the authirs of the following research papers for valuable inputs and guidance. Effective global leadership requires a global mindset. By Stephen .L .cohen and A developmental approach to global leadership. By Loana .S.P.Story Nova school of business and economics , portugal
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