Mobile Human Resources Management

Technology development is one of the most powerful driving forces. It form differently the way we engage, work, live, communicate and also the way commercial activity is conducted. The applications of scientific knowledge and digital business communication developments have made various organizational work activities. The waythat organizations' perform their work activity is currentlyassociated toelectronic commerce, digital business, consumer relations, human resource development etc.
In 1980s Information Technology used for HR functions to arrange organizations operations, mainly payroll processing. In 2006s organizations use the scope of Human Resource Management applications such as knowledge acquisition services, compensation management, or performance management. Technology pushing the boundaries of artificial intelligence, wireless solutions, networked virtual and speech synthesis reality. Many organizations are taking necessary steps to provide great work activity schedules to safe the employee's rest hours and to produce great result use of employee is work time.
The most popular HR applications of mobile technology are recruiting. The explanation is very simple: Gen Xers (those born between 1965 and 1980) and Millennial (born after 1980, through the late 1990s)are the first to adopt mobile technology and find various jobs in large number using mobile. GenerationC (individuals born since 1997) thoseare young toconnect, communicate, collaborate, and seem always to be clicking.
People are most important key assets of an organization. So people can determine the success or failure of organizations. The organization to achieve their mission mainly concentrates knowledge, skills, creative ability,behaviors, talents and attitudes of people. Though an organization does not have power over this people, they can make use of certain methods, tools and techniques to influence the people towards achieving the company goals. Whenorganizations found a newterm is called 'Human Resource Management' (HRM). The term 'HRM' is first appeared in the mid-1960 in the United States of America,(Franklyn. C )and is attributed by economist E.Wight Bakke, who present a lecture entitled 'The Human Resources Function' (1958).He said: 'The function is related to the understanding, development, effective employment and integration of potential in the resource 'people' thatI shall simply call the human resource function'.
This description is very similar to many of the current definitions of the term HRM we find in a many textbooks in recent years.
'Personal Management is that part of management concerned with people at work and their relationship within the organization. It seeks to bring together men and women who make up an enterprise, enabling each to make his own best contribution to its success are both as an individual and as a member of a working group'. - NPIM
'It is planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and societal objectives are accomplished'. -Edwin B. Flippo
'It is that filed of management which has to do with planning, organizing and controlling the functions of procuring, developing, maintaining and utilizing a labor force such as that the : (a) objectives for which the company is established are effectively, (b) objectives of all levels of personnel are served to the highest possible degree, (c) objectives of society are dully considered and served'. -J.Jucious
Human Resource Management (HRM) is a process of bringing together organizations and people towards the organizations missions. The HR functions is the creation of a shared services approach it include recruitment, training, benefits and compensation, answering employee queries related to HR policies, and providing help and advice to managers on employee issues such as discipline and absenteeism.
The main activities of HR function can be categorized based on set of activities described below in detail (Christine Cross and Ronan Carbery):
' Employee Resourcing:
Human Resource Planning, Recruitment, Selection, Providing contracts, and Managing expatriation.
' Inducting, Developing and Retaining Employees:
Induction, Performance management, Motivating employees, Managing rewards, Learning and development, and Career development.
' Managing the Work-Task Relationships:
Managing disciplinary issues, Grievance handling, Managing redundancy, Negotiation, managing employee relations, Providing fair and equal treatment of employees, Managing diversity, and Conflict resolution.
' Exiting Employees:
Managing poor performers, Dismissal, Employee turnover, and Employment legislation.
' Employee and Organization Welfare:
Health and Safety, Employee wellbeing, Counseling, Organization climate, corporate social responsibility and ethics, and Employee assistance programs.

The evolution of Human Resource (HR) Technology which enables an organization to sustain competitive advantage in the competitive digital business world. HR technology can be defined as
' Any technology that is used to attract, hire, retain, maintain human resources, support HR administration, and optimize human resource management'. This HR technology can be used in different types of human resource information systems (HRIS) and by various stakeholders like employees, managers and HR professionals. This HR technology can be accessed different ways and characterized into four stages of development.
Stages in the Evolution of HR Technology:
Stage 1: Paper- Based Systems:
The 'Paper-Based' systems operated independently and did not combine any other business related functions. The data and information are stored in mainframe computers.
Stage 2: Personal Computer (PC) Technology:
The HR related data and information are typically stored in client-server. Servers are more powerful computers that manage resources like files, printers and network traffic. Clients are Personal Computer or any other work stations on which HR Experts to access the HR related information form the servers. The HR Professional to produce reports very simple and easy.
Stage 3: Electronic Database systems:
This stage mainly based on the relational database technology. A Relational database means the information and data can be stored in more than one file, each file contains different types of data (like Numeric, Alphabetic, Symbols, etc.). This technology which enables HR professionals to store data and information in different locations and integrate with other business 'related systems.At this time, the use of Internet was rapidly increasing, and if the organization want to send information through mass mailing to their employees. In this stage organizations entered fully into digital era.

Stage 4: Web-Based Technology:
This stage many organizations have started to embrace HR technology. Many organizations mainly focus their operations in automating transactions to achieve effectiveness and efficiency. In this stage organization uses the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system to interact with a database to access or update information.another main methods is web-based applications which allows users can access the information from any computer that connected to internet with secure, password protected and data encryption via web browsers.
What is Next? :
The development of technology which enables HR managers, employees and any other user to access information very speed and accurate via heterogeneous systems. The current Human Resource technology is Mobile-based technology, this paper discuss in detail with objectives, scopes, challenges and implementation of Mobile Human Resource Technology.The four major objectives of HR as cost effectiveness, high commitment, higher congruence and high competence.
Mobile HR Technology:
'Mobile Technology is not a new strategy; it is simply a new way to support the same strategies that you already follow' (Amy Wilson (2014)). The mobile Human Resource describes the transformation of Human Resource service using mobile-based technology. The impact of mobile technology provides fresh chance for organizations to assist transform core Human Resource functions. This mobile transformation will increase both productivity and improved employee's job satisfaction and also allow communicating anywhere, anytime to their stakeholders. HR processes, including hiring/recruitment, performance management, training, and assessments are all moving away from the desktops and laptops and other essential needs of organizations to be accessible on their mobile phones.
Mobile Human Resources Management can be achieved via mobile site and mobile applications.
A mobile site is a website that the content can be viewed in mobile using mobile browsers on the various sizes of devices like phones, tablets. Mobile site is very simplified versions compared with typical desktop sites and also have better user experience, faster page loads and improved usability. A mobile application is a software application that works heterogeneous operation systems like Android, Windows, and IPhones. The user must download mobile application from mobile application store and then perform a specific set of functions.The mobile technology helps HR to become proactive rather than reactive and also transfer each important area in Human Resources given below (Tonya and Bill):
' Recruiting :
Mobile allows employees to capture business card or CV information via mobile devices wherever they may be (Conferences, network events, etc.) and submit the contact information directly to HR to initiate recruiting.
' Onboarding :
Employees can submit new hire documentation via mobile (photo of driver's license and social security card, for example) and track the status from anywhere, at any time.
' Performance :
Mobile apps allow employees to track their performance and receive real-time feedback anytime, from anywhere.
' Development :
Employee can receive training via mobile devices from anywhere at any time.
' Attrition :
I wish there were a mobile app for expressing frustration on projects that could later be used to identify process improvements.
' Create Company Knowledge :
Company systems and information is accessible via mobile for real-time access and collaboration.
' Organizational Change :
Mobile apps bring on-the-go (road) employees into the social conversation to support and influence organizational change.
The objectives of Mobile ' Human Resource described in below:
' To create and utilize the resources in the motivated workforce, to achieve organizations missions.
' To establish and maintain good organizational structure and have good working relationship among the members of the organization.
' To secure the collaboration of individual or groups within the organizations.
' To create facilities and opportunities for members of an organizations.
' To achieve organization goals with effective use of human resources in the organizations.
' To identify and satisfy the members needsof organizations by providing compensations and social security, prestige and status.
' To maintain very high level of members morale and human relations by providing various facilities.
' To strengthen and increase the people assets by providing training and development programs.
' To provide a chance for expression and sound management.
' To provide an acceptable, comprehensive and continuing information system about work task and people at a fair and sensible cost.
' To provide support for future proposal and alsofor policy makingformulations.
' To offer human resourcesdemand and supply imbalances monitoring.
' Toautomate employee related data and services.
' HR experts moving from administrative paper handlers to strategic partners
' Improving knowledge management through m-selection, performance management and
' To offer information security and employee privacy.
The scope of m-HRM, highlighted below:
' A decisive step towards a paperless administration and higher speed of access and process of data.
' Instance access to HR information and data and easy way in classify and reclassify information.
' Collection of data, information as the basis for developing the strategic of HRM.
' Better consistent and higher accurate of information, data are report generated.
' Fast response to queries and answer are more transparency in the system.
' A great internal profile for HR leading to most work-life culture.
' Achieving of most faster, systematic and standardized procedures.
' Significant reduction HR administration and compliance costs.
' Adapt more effectively to any client and facilitating management.
' A more real-time workflow in the business process, decision-making, productivity and job satisfaction.
The Various m-HRM challenges are (Teresa and Mario (2009)):
' Knowing whether to investigate and at what time to act
' Making alternative choices
' Assigning accurate responsibility
' Deciding on the correct method of Back and Front End integration
' Controlling various expenditures
' Monitoring different business activity.

The few organizations and well-known products are already more efficiently and effectively building the mobile audience experience; many organizations plan to implement mobile based application and mobile site. To develop a mobile site or mobile application the organizations must consider both business and development (Dave Klein (2002)). Table.1 shows both considerations.
' Purpose and Goals
' Audience
' User Experience
' Budget
' Ease and Speed of Implementation
' Audience Reach
' Performance
' Updates and Maintenance
' Search engine optimization
' Evolving web technology
' Data connectivity and Offline Use
' Paid vs. Free

Table.1. The Overall Glance Comparison Mobile Site Vs. Mobile App (Source: Adobe??Inc.)
The developments of mobile site have inherent advantages over the mobile application like access, comfortable and cost-effect (Jason Summerfield (2011)).
' Immediacy
A mobile site is immediately accessible to employee across varies range of devices via browser. In other hand applications the user must download application from application store than only user access their operations.
' Compatibility
A mobile site cans easily accessible different types of mobile devices, whereas application runs heterogeneous platform (Apple OS, Android, Windows etc.).
' Upgrade ability
A mobile site is easy to update their page design or content and easy to publish; On other hand application requires every time push to users , then user download application based on type of device.
' Find ability
Mobile site much easier to find from search results and listed from organizations. The visibility of mobile applications is largely restricted due to application market store.
' Share ability
A mobile site URLs are easier to share via simple link, like email, text message, social media. Mobile application unable to share it may be very difficult.
' Reach
A mobile site is easier to access all type of platforms and easier to share. But mobile application reachability is very difficult because user want download from app store.
' Time and Cost
Mobile site development is requires less time and more cost-effective than the mobile application. Mobile application development requires different versions according to different platforms.
' 24/7 Visibility & User Access
The mobile site and mobile application is easy to access anywhere and anytime.
' Support and Sustainability
Mobile site support over a time from the initial launch whereas mobile applications needs regularly updating and testing involved and it must suitable to multiple heterogeneous devices.

There are some common factors which contribute to successful implementation of mobile human resource management in organizations; which are as follows (Tania et al., (2009) :
1. User involvement
2. Business process re-engineering
3. Planning and strategy
4. Training and education
5. Change management
6. Top management support
7. Effective communication and Project management

Implementation of Mobile Human Resource requires a basic fundamental change in the way HR Experts access their organization roles and rules. Now HR professional not only expert in traditional knowledge and skills and also have the ability to apply scientific knowledge via mobile based technology.
The Mobile Human Resource faces many problems either in mobile applications or mobile websites that take advantage of numerous vulnerabilities commonly found mobile devices (EYGM, 2012).
' Authentication Bypass - Weak Password, Account Lockout and Backdoors.
' Authorization - Privilege Escalation, Data Tempering
' Session Management - Session Trapping, Session Timeout
' Configuration Management - Unauthorized access to Administration Interface
' Input Validation - Parameter Tampering, Command Injection
' Data Protection - Network Traffic sniffing, Weak encryption
' Exception Handling - Denial of Service, Information Disclosure
' Auditing and Logging - Log file forging/manipulation/destruction
' Caching - Keystroke, Snapshots
' Passwords vaults - Storage of passwords in clear text in database.
' Software Out-of-date - Out of data both application/operating system
' Location ' Based Services - Attempt to disclose or spoof
As Mobile Technology based organizations continue to discover over the coming years, organizations using these mobile technologies will need to continuously access the security implications of adopting these advancements (EYMG??, 2012 and ADP??1, 2011).
' Conduct Mobile Security awareness programs to existing employees.
' Create and Implement an Information Technology policy that ensures employees' understanding.
' Perform threat modeling to identify risks of moving applications to mobile platform.
' Train mobile application and website developer in secure coding.
' Limit the sensitive data and information transfer to mobile devices
' Utilize Mobile Device Management (MDM??) software to create encrypted and protected password.
' Perform Technical security assessments mobile applications and devices.
' Increase monitoring controls to mobile device connections.
' Establish a program that periodically evaluate new and emerging threats in mobile applications
' Remote device kill and, data and information deletion.
' Partitioning of organization and people applications and data.
' Over-the-air provisioning and encryption.
' Remote control and delivery of security updates to applications.

The Mobile Human Resourceapplications are increased in recent years. These include Recruitment, Training, Learning, Marketing, Pay Statement, etc. There are many benefits to adopting mobile human resource applications and mobile site (ADP??2, 2014).
' Convenience - Mobile applications and Mobile Websites will reduce or eliminate the desktop computer access. People no need to use paper, and call or email HR with questions. People can access organizational data and information anywhere and anytime.
' Speed - Mobile applications which enable real-time decision-making without use of paper or use of desktop computer. People connect virtually.
' Productivity - Manager and Employees spend less time managing HR issues, and both are concentrating organizational growth. This can reduce cost and increase productivity and improve the quality of Human Resource services and functions.
' Expectations and
Engagement - Recent year's social/mobile/cloud workforce appreciates and respects on organization that makes their work or task easier with use of mobile technology. Mobile Human Resource applications will increase the employee job satisfaction.
This section will deal with Research and Survey report, how the Mobile Technology will be used in HR related functions, and other organizational activity.
According to (TJinsite??, Feb 2014) 10% Hire through Mobile in 2013, 29% Organizations will implement mobile based recruitment in the next 6 months, 58% Employees feels it's an easy and quick technique,49% organizations considering for implement mobile recruitment strategy. According to ADC??75% of HR managers say mobile HR solutions improve the workforce satisfaction, 70% of midsized and 90% of large firms have either deployed smartphone,42% employees use mobile technology for work activities, 81% of large and 76% of midsized organizations report improved workforce satisfaction,78% of large and 73% of midsized firms see improved real-time decision making,75% of large and 71% of midsized companies observe improved workforce productivity. According to CTS,(Nov 2012),mobile platform save 50% to 60% costs .
The present paper attempts to clarify the importance of mobile in human resourcemanagement on organizations. In this paper clearly shows that how human resource management transforms towards the m-HRM which increases the organizations productivity and gives many objectives of m-HRM to theorganizations to achieve their goals. The mobile devices allows to managers to perform HR processes such as recruitment to retirement.

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