In this fast-moving business world, the aim of most business is to set up unique or exclusive capabilities that will help augment their competitive advantage in the market. And this is possible through enhancement of core competencies. As stressed in the paper of Lowson, (2002), competencies conforms to the basic knowledge owned by an organisation and to be distinct they are not locked up to functional domains but cut across the organisation and its organisational borders. From this, it is evident that having a competitive advantage is like having a difference, the preference of definite activities to bring an exclusive value-mix to a selected market, thus the capacity to execute certain activities and administer the linkages between actions is the key source of competitive advantage. Thus, for the management administrators the strategic task to craft a unique way ahead, using whatsoever core competencies and resources at its disposal, against the environment and influence of the current setting.
In this paper, issues concerning the motivation, leadership and team building skills of management of organisations will be discuss. This attempts to elaborate how motivation, leadership and team building skills are the keys to successful management.
Keys to Successful Management
Most business organisations find it impossible to create any kind of sustainable competitive advantage based on product alone. It is common knowledge that every one of the successful organisation sought and found a precise understanding of how it could create a customer-centred competitive advantage and forget the management factors such as motivation, leadership and team building. It is indeed true that one of the best ways to attain success was through enhancement of critical success factors. According to Thierauf, (2001), critical success factors (CSFs) in an organisation, are the limited number of parts in which upshots, if they are satisfactory can guarantee that booming competitive advantage. Identifying these factors is an old idea in management for the reason that there were great leaders throughout time who have acknowledged and addressed key factors to attain their successes. There is no one definition of CSF but it is regarded as that these are the parts which the organisation needs to focus on to do well. For that reason, the activities should be cautiously monitored and directed by the management.
Hayes, (2002) defined critical success factors as managerial factors that create a competitive edge for a company in its respective industry. There is no specific process in identifying and executing critical success factors in strategic management planning. This is the reason why Thierauf, (2001) states that diverse organisations which have parallel composition can carry out its market entry forming diverse ways which lead to the progress of various critical factors. As the principal means for an organisation to pull off its strategy, critical success factors must take into account the differences in the environment and organisation that exists.
Motivation is a vital key to each organisation, as this possibly will affect the efficiency and the morale of the people within the organisation. Lack of motivation might results to high staff turnover, lofty rate of absenteeism, reduced performance, weak attentiveness. If the management officials recognise the staff's essential learning motivator, it can perk up the clients' satisfaction in the long run (Wong et al, 1999). As part of the motivation within the organisation, Wong et al, (1999) believed that it is important for management officials to employ different kind of rewards system or recognition system in order to sustain the morale and increase the level of motivation. As argued in the paper of Silverman & Casazza (2000), "motivation is a process not a result" (p.92). By considering the theories of motivation, it also helps management administrators to set up an improved structure of training planning and design in an organisation. It is essential to comprehend the motivation aspect in order to examine the relationship between rewards approach and learning methods of the members in an organisation.
There are diverse perceptions and definitions of "motivation". For instance, Robbins, (2001) believes that motivation is an outlook of personal trait as others have or others might not have it. Motivation might refer as the eagerness to wield lofty levels of effort toward organisational aims, accustomed by the effort's capability to gratify some individual need (Robbins, 1998). On the other hand, Armstrong (1993) in his paper also described motivation as a cause of individuals to behave in certain ways. Additionally, Mullins labels motivation as 'the degree to which an individual needs and desires to connect in certain specific behaviours' (Mullins, 1999, p. 26). With respect to this, it can be scrutinized that motivation is essential for the development of the members in the organisation. The member commences his/her career through education, basically the customs of the organisation and his/her tasks. Motivation is an imperative factor to education for the reason that if an organisation does not have the skill to motivate its members, the knowledge within the organisation is not basically used to the fullest (Osteraker, 1999). Therefore, in flourishing knowledge in an organisation, finding the aspects that will stimulate its members to participate in incessant education and to take benefit of this information turns out to be their aim (Osteraker, 1999).
In any organisation, management officials needed to evaluate and motivate its members. It is considered that motivation is the answer to positive retention of members to effort and to like their tasks. The theories of motivation gave some ideas of how a motivation program can be implemented within an organisation. This can be started by surveying the members and ask them what they think about the company. Basically, Osteraker, (1999) argued that through research conducted by the management officials in an organisation, the basic needs of members can be identified and satisfied through the growth and implementation of motivation programs. The preliminary act that should be done is to make members realise their individual worth by motivating them. For instance, members should be given the free will to voice out their opinions, even though there should be a yardstick on how dialogues should be ethically observed, as well as respect to superiors. For instance, the former General Manager of General Electric, Jack Welch uses this method to motivate members. Through this, little and huge issues that affect members everyday work behaviours were identified and solved (Slater et al., 1998). This is fundamentally a great way to identify members' needs.
Furthermore, motivation is the contact between the individual and the situation. Under diverse cases, individual will react in a different way. It all depends on the individual motivational drive or individual needs and varies from different circumstances (Robbins & Coulter, 1997). It also guides motivation treated as a need-satisfying practice; an unfulfilled need generates pressure that arouses drives within the individuals. These drives produce search behaviour to find certain goals that, if achieved, will gratify the need and direct to the diminution of strain (Robbins, 1998).
One of the keys for a successful organisation is a good manager with excellent leadership traits. Can you imagine an organisation, a company, or any other organisation succeeds without good governance? According to Kousez & Posner (2002), credibility is the foundation of a good manager. A manager should be credible for him to lead. In addition to this characteristic, a manager should possess honesty, competence, aspiration, and a forward-looking approach especially when it comes to the financial aspect of the organisation. Come to think of this, would you believe in managers who do not practice what they preach, do not walk the talk, do not do what they say they will do, and do not keep their promises? What would happen to the change process in a company if managers are lacking of skills?
As part of the development of the competitive advantage of the business organisation with respect to leadership capabilities of managers, several factors should be considered. Social responsibility, use of power, change management and of course leadership among business industries should be given enough priorities (Boddy, 2005). If a proper leadership style and used of power are used firms can have the edge it has to counter any threats, solve any problems, and achieve its goals. Use of power given by leaders gives a company critical edge to counter any threats from its competitors and its environment. Use of power given by leaders helps to compete in a global business environment (Boddy, 2005). It steers the company into making right decisions and right practices with regards to competitors thus enabling it to survive in the global business environment. Actually, Shackleton, (1995) stressed that it gives a company critical edge to solve problems it has. Through effective use of power and social responsibility this solving problems can be easier for any company. Methods and preventive measures can be formulated towards problems the company has. Use of power given by leaders gives a company critical edge to achieve its goal. Organisations use different things to reach the goals and objectives they have. Without this the goals cannot be easily reached. Furthermore, the use of power given by leaders gives the company direction on what should be done. It provides ideas on what approach will be used on certain situations. It also directs the company in doing the right things so that the company can reach its goals.
According to Katzenbach and Smith (1994), "a team is a small group of people with complementary skills and abilities who are committed to a common goal and approach for which they hold each other accountable". "a team is a small group of people with complementary skills and abilities who are committed to a common goal and approach for which they hold each other accountable". In team building, there should be a communal sharing of roles and responsibilities on teams and development of new skills to improve the team's performance is at hand. Rather than looking to a leader to define the goal and approach, teams identify and reach consensus on their common goal and approach. Most importantly, teams hold their members accountable.
Actually, the rise of teamwork and related changes in an organisation creates reasonably idiosyncratic skills that may not translate well to other settings. Getting a group of people to cooperate and function as a team is not easy. It requires learning about each other, establishing trust, and developing good methods of communication (Mackins, 2010). This also makes unique demands by requiring staff to learn how to perform many of the different tasks in their area. If a staff moves out of a team, this investment in learning about the team and its tasks does not translate elsewhere and is lost. When a replacement staff or manager is brought into a team work system that new staff or manager must make a big investment in learning these specific skills before he or she can begin to contribute. And until the individual worker can contribute, the entire team -- indeed, the entire system -- suffers.
These arguments seem to suggest that in order to make the new work arrangements payoff, employment has to be reasonably stable. The investment in learning required to make members competent in current business environment is costly for employers, who recoup that investment only when the business process settle down and start performing well. If members are continually moving in and out of these business processes, the cost of the investments in learning goes through the roof and cannot be recouped. Having a constant stream of new workers coming in, being trained, and then leaving means that the investment in learning is simply wasted.
As argued by Rowden (2002), as organisations restructure their production and service systems around teamwork concepts, they require special attention to training in group dynamics. Collective decision making, team leadership, interpersonal communication, and related cooperation skills are vital to success in work units. Programs that teach coworkers how to interact more effectively with one another, often by simulating or role-playing critical situations, are in vogue among cutting-edge organisations.
As conversed, the facts of the primary sources of competitive force emphasizes the critical areas where skill concerning motivation, leadership and team building may yield the greatest payoff, and highlights the areas where an organisation trends promise to hold the utmost significance as either opportunities or threats. Accepting these sources will also confirm to be useful in considering areas for management, though the primary focus is on strategy in the industry. Management is an indispensable thing for any organisation. This is a significant process for the reason that it allows the organisation to make verdicts that will be advantageous and beneficial for them. Additionally, organisations that are aware of the effects of motivation, leadership and team building skills are more successful compare to organisations that are solely relying on their products and services.
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