Organisational Behaviour, Organisation Development and Reinventing the Organization

Chapter 1 . Organisational Behaviour, Organisation Development and Reinventing the Organization

Learning Objectives

Define OB, OD and recognize need for change.

Describe culture and understand its impact.

Understand the psychological contract.

Describe five stages of OD.

What are organizations like as work settings?

What is the nature of managerial work?

How do we learn about organizational behavior?


Organizational behavior

OB means how people behave in any organization or we can say that it is the

analysis of human behaviour in an enterprise .This is an interdisciplinary field devoted in understanding of individual behaviour ,group behaviour ,interpersonal processes and group dynamics in the organization . OB is not just a single subject but an amalgamation of various subjects like sociology ,psychology,anthropology and clinical psychology . OB is a specified branch of the behavioural science that is used to predict ,study and analyse behaviours of human capital at work in any organization .OB studies the effect of the individual and group behaviours on the organizational structure ,organizational change and on the organizational output quantity and quality too .


Scientific methods models

Simplified views of reality that attempt to identify major factors and forces underlying real-world phenomenon.That which is logical and reasonable

Link presumed causes of events (independent variables) with outcomes (dependent variables).

How to study organization

There are different ways to study an organization . The most used ones are mentioned below :

Field Studies

Meta Analyses

Case Studies

Field studies are ways where organizations are studied on the basis of actual situation that occur in the an outside the organization . The researcher visit the organization individually and judge and study the organization on the basis of what the organization is all about actually .

Meta analyses use the statistical pooling from many studies to study the organization . This aggregating technique allows OB researchers to generalize and apply the conclusions to many OB situations. Data are collected by means of various data collection methods , proper analysis is done then statistics is applied to find out various inner characteristics of the organizations .

By means of case studies various organizations are compared with similar type of market leaders and successful organizations and then the required changes in the organization is made . Here actual happenings in different organizations and their ways of working are written in form of cases . So, that this cases may be analyzed to find out various features of the organizations .

Scientific thinking is important to OD

In this method cause and effect relationship are established , every explanation is supported with reasons and various mathematical data . Statistical methods are used for process analysis . The process of data collection is controlled and is done in a systematic manner . The proposed explanations are carefully tested by different experts . Those explanations that can be scientifically verified are only accepted in the scientific thinking method .

Contingency thinking

Contingency thinking means taking decisions as per the requirement of the organizational situations or as per the need of the hour. The managers must understand the demands of different situations and develop responses that best fit the circumstances and people involved. The decision must be bold and in time. OB scientific models gather evidence of how different situations can best be understood and handled.

Modern workplace trends in an organization

Now a days the ways people behave and think , the ways they work , the relationship of the top management with the employees , the working patterns and the communication process in the organizations had drastically changed and developed .

Commitment to ethical behavior. ---- The top management and the employees are committed to the business and their customers to deal and be ethical .

Importance of human capital.---- At present the human beings are given maximum importance for the development of the organizations . The human capitals are trained more , motivated and encouraged so, that their productivity will increase .

Formal authority (command and control) replaced by group decisions and consensus.--- Centralized authority and power are no more there in place decentralized pattern of authority , participative and group decision making are in use .

Emphasis on teamwork.----- The modern trends emphasis in the formation , growth and development of efficient high performing teams . Team analysis , role analysis , role negotiation , outdoor lab method etc. are used to increase the productivity of teams . The teams are modern days base units over which the whole organization depend .

Pervasive influence of information technology. ----- The communication process has been developed a lot by digitalization and computerization of the communication networks . Computer networks and sattelite communications are used as the latest methods of information technology . Electronic data exchange , e- marketing , e-business and e- commerce are the modern days trend to deal with business .

Respect for new workforce expectations.----- The employees feel that they must fulfill the organizational targets as well as the organizational expectations so, as to enhance their career and carry the organization up to the next height of success .

Changing concept of careers.---- The concept of career has change now a days . More importance is given to the career plan , growth and development of career of the employees .The employees change their career so, as to reach new heights in the career path . Multiskilling is having good importance in the career growth .

3. Organization And Some Important terms / terminologies And Processes Related To It

Organization is a collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose. The core purpose of an organization is the creation of goods and services. The mission statements focus attention on the core purpose. The organization can be studied from macro and micro point of views .

'Our Reason for Being: Existence of organization

To serve our customers' health needs with imaginative science from plants and minerals;To inspire all those we serve with a mission of responsibility and goodness; To empower others by sharing our knowledge, time, talents, and profits; and To help create a better world by exchanging our faith, experience, and hope.'


Comprehensive plan that guides organizations to operate in ways that allow them to outperform their competitors. It is the basic game plan , where top management group, CEO and the senior supervisors are involved , these are the statements that help the organization to have better competitive edge over the other organizations . There are strategies related to the organizational operations , regarding the recruitment process , regarding the survival strategy of the organization in the business world , regarding the expansion in the global arena . Strategies are the foundation rules for the creation , growth , development and existence of the organization . Strategies are used for structural transformation of the organization .

See Tom's of Maine strategy that supports their mission.


The people, groups, and institutions having an interest in an organization's performance. There are people who are indirectly involved and are interested in the growth and development of the organization they are called the individuals stakeholders , they provide indirect financial support to the company . Various financial organizations such as banks and state financial corporations are also the stakeholders of the organization . The interests of multiple stakeholders sometimes cause conflict and create a situation of unhealthy organizational climate .

Organizational culture

The corporate culture is a long term hidden and exposed values beliefs and norms of the organization It is the shared beliefs and values that influence the behavior of organizational members. It reflects the internal personality of the organization . The corporate culture contains the corporate stories , corporate values , corporate artifacts , various ethos and the management practices that prevail in the organization since long . The dress , the furniture, the building , the corporate structure are the major exposed part of the corporate culture. The values , the ethos , the norms are the hidden part of corporate culture which remain inner most core of the organization .

'How we do things around here'

Constructive culture

This is a corporate culture where all work as team , where the efforts are complimentary and where the human needs are given sufficient importance . The members are encouraged to work together in ways that meet higher order human needs.

Passive/defensive culture

Members tend to act defensively in their working relationships .No new and innovative steps are taken in the organization . NO higher order cultural change occurs and no new things are adopted . The members are very cautious .

Aggressive/defensive culture

Members tend to act forcefully in their working relationships to protect their status and positions.

Describe an organization you have worked for, or been a member of.

How was the culture constructive? Defensive? Aggressive? Explain.

Workforce diversity

Individual differences of organizational members, based on gender, race and ethnicity, age, able-bodiedness, and sexual orientation. The work force diversity is a challenge and when use properly work as a boon for the organization.


Refers to inclusiveness, pluralism and genuine respect for diversity and individual differences. Here individual values and ethos are respected and the differences are constructively used to avoid any type of conflicting situation in the organization .


'One of your assignments this term is a team project. Please select and sign up for a team project.' Do you . . .

Signal your friends in the classroom, and agree to sign up together for the same team. Wait for everyone to sign up, and then decide. Just pick a team randomly.

Then study what happens ?

3. Manager his job and skills

Manager is a very important term and cannot be explained in few words .someone who manages various jobs in the organization ,this is from a layman's point of view .But more technically we can say a manager is someone who supports and supervises others for better output of the organization .Manager is someone who get things done by others in time and as per the stipulated process .So, someone who can direct and control others and work to gain the organizational goal .

Now we will speak in more specific terms and define the term effective manager, an effective manager is a successful manager or a committed manager ,whose team is very capable and effective. The team of such a manager is highly motivated ,committed and continuously work to achieve the goal of the organization ,they remain happy and enthusiastic to face any constructive challenge so as to put their organization in better competitive edge in the business world .Two very important concepts that is to be understood by any effective manager are as - the task performance by the department or the division as a whole ,and the basic meaning of task performance is the quantity and quality of the work done or produced by the department as a whole or as a group output

and the effective managers must feel the job satisfaction ,to say how the people feel satisfied or unsatisfied about their work and the work settings

The management process.

Any organization when managed and run properly then it involves a number of processes and steps .Thus the management process can be broken down into a number of small steps so that we will be able to understand the whole clearly .The basic steps of are as ---

The first step is the planning.

The second step is the organizing.

The third step is the leading.

The fourth step is the controlling .

Planning --- One of the important operation of management process is planning which means making a frame work of how work will progress in future in the organization . There are various types of planning depending on the time period the long term plans , the medium term plans and the short term plans. Depending of the nature of the work there are financial planning , recruitment planning , marketing planning and over all operational planning . These planning are formulated by top management and executed by middle level managers .

Organizing --- Organizing means grouping and conducting various activity together . Different departments , different sections and different functions are organized by manager in such a way so, that the whole of the organization work as a single team .

Leading --- Leading and leadership is very essential for the motivation and encouragement of people in a group and team . Leading is required to achieve the organizational goal . There are various types of leaderships in any organization they are as participative leadership , autocratic leadership , mixed leadership , managerial grid leadership and laize fare leadership .

Controlling ---- Different types controls and accountability must be there to make the organization work properly . Different types of control are used by the organization are as financial and budgetary , internal and external inspections , audits functions and other human resource management control . Market analysis and improvement regularly reviewed and used as a control measure.

The nature of managerial work.

The managerial work has got immense importance in the organization so, we must know about the nature and depth of manager's work . The manager is a person who guides all the activities in the organization. The nature can be clearly understood by the below mentioned facts ---

Managers work long hours.

Managers are busy people.

Managers are often interrupted.

Managerial work is fragmented and variable.

Managers work mostly with other people.

Managers spend a lot of time communicating.

The managers of any organizations are involved in various types of organizational operations and related to the core management functions such as marketing , finance and human resource management function . All such function require full dedication and long term involvements of the managers . There are various types of functions and responsibilities to be fulfill by the managers and to deal with internal and external environmental problems so the managers remain busy through out .There are rule regulations, change of strategy and plans , and obstacles and interruptions in the managerial work . The manager work in a fragmented and differentiated way and there are various variables which get effected and get effects by the managerial work . The manager mostly work with the employees , with the stakeholders , with the customers , with the OD consultants and with various other people who are directly or indirectly related to the organization . Communication be it formal or informal , written or verbal or any other form are always vital parts of the managerial job .

Managerial skills and competencies


An ability to translate knowledge into action that results in a desired performance of the individual and the organization . The five basic skills required by an effective manager are as ----- the technical skill , the human skill / people skill, the conceptual skill , the emotional understanding and the social skill .

Technical skill

The ability of a manager to perform specialized tasks is known as technical skill . Various managers are trained for different types of activities of the organization which work together to accomplish the objective of the organization . They are as ---- the engineering skill , the accounting skill , the computing skill , the managerial skill etc.

Human skill

The ability to work well with other people is called human skill . This is very essential because by using this skill the managers form team / groups which are the basic functional unit of the organization .

Conceptual skill

The capacity of a manager to analyze and solve complex and interrelated problems is known as the conceptual skill . The concept of any problem is well understood and then analyzed to find out the solution by using quantitative and qualitative techniques . Make the employees understand and work as per all such organizational concept .

Emotional intelligence

The ability to understand and deal with emotions. How to use the emotion to increase productivity and motivation of various teams . Self-awareness and to know the positive and negative points of self must be well understood . Then only self correction and self-regulation can be possible . The manager should have the ability to work as a motivator , counselor and leader of different teams and groups . The manager must have respect for other views , must have empathy and social skills too.

4. Moral Management 'This includes ethics in decision-making. There are certain ethical behaviour and moral activities in the process of management of any organization .The manager must be moral and work as per the proper wisdom of the organization . Doing the right things and avoiding all wrong activities .

Immoral manager---- The manager who do not at all follow the ethical rules and perform their duties in a wrong and unethical way .

Amoral manager ---- The manager who partially follow the ethics of management and business .

Moral manager ---- Those managers who stick to the ethical and moral rules to perform their duty for the organization . Practices ethics mindfulness is vital for the qualitative upgradation of the organization .

5. Learning

Learning is very essential now a days to fit in the changing business world . Learning is an enduring change in behavior that results from experience. Learning are theoretical and practical . Theoretical by means of training and practical by means of on job activities .

Life-long learning

Continuous learning from everyday work experiences, colleagues, mentors, and training seminars and workshops.

Organizational learning

Process of acquiring knowledge and utilizing information to adapt successfully to changing circumstances.

The Workout: Organization Changes at GE.

GE has training center for managers. Participants said GE was slow to make changes. Workout is program that came from sessions. In workout employees take the leadership in bringing about changes.

GE continues to use workout so it can reinvent itself.

6. Challenges for Organizations

There are various challenges for organization they are as the technological challenges , the social challenges , the cultural challenges, the structural changes and the political/ governmental changes . The

change avalanching down on us. Change is required because tomorrow's world different from today's.

Organizations need to adapt the change. The organizations is in continuous interaction with external forces. The external forces to some time show the path for change . The organization must maintain a balance with the external environment so, as to survive and develop in a changing world .

Figure 1.1The Organizational Environment

External Environment





Regulatory boards


7. What Is OD?

OD means long term and permanent alteration of some parts or the whole organization to suit the requirement of the changing business world .To have a better competitive positing . OD means the

long-range efforts and programs aimed at improving an organization's ability to survive by changing the problem-solving and renewal processes of the organization.

Characteristics of OD are :

Planned : OD is a planned activity . The OD is not natural but an artificial and planned alteration . The top management , the influential persons of the organization , the internal consultants and the external consultants plan and execute this activities . This is a long and time consuming process .

Organization wide : It affects every part of part organization . OD process starts from team then moves on to departments , from climate to corporate cultural change and finally transforms the whole organization .

Managed from top : OD requires top management commitment and support to succeed . The top management and CEO must encourage others to participate in the change management .CEO and top management work as a change agent and change catalyst .

Increases organization effectiveness : OD helps in improving organizational goal achievement processes and enables the organization to achieve its objectives .The effectiveness of the groups and teams are increased to increases the overall effectiveness of the organization .

Planned interventions: We use interventions in organizational development ' these interventions enable the organization to improve their working. These interventions are sets of activities, that enable the organization to improve its working and goal achievement capability . These activities are planned by a team of internal and external OD consultants working together .

Uses behavioral science knowledge : OD uses behavioural science model ' the purpose of OD is to use behavioural science (Psychology, sociology and other sciences) to improve the working of the organization .

Planned change.

Collaborative approach.

Improve performance.

Humanistic values.

Systems approach.

Scientific approaches.

Table 1.1Major Characteristics of the Field of OD

Major characteristics of the field of OD

1. Planned

2. Organization wide / wide range

3. Top support

4. Increased organizational output

5. Planned interventions

6. Use of behavioural science

7. Developing Organization And Up gradation Of The Organization

1.Meaning Of Organizational Development And Brief History Of organization Development :-

The organization and the human capital in the organization required to be improved and upgraded to fit the challenging changing world of business administration.

Organizational development means changing the organization positively and upgrading the human resources to maximize the organizational output . Various program and unprogramed ways and means are adopted to carry on the process of the organizational development. Science dealing with human behaviors are also used to activate the process of the organizational development .

The concept of organizational development came into existence in the 1950s.The field and name / fame of organizational development grow a lot in the 1970s-1980s when a lot of organizations throughout the world came to know the fruitful output organizational development process. They came to know how to apply the behavioral science to maximize the organizational output and involve the people too.

''Organizational development is a process of improving and developing the organization.''

''organizational development is a planned way to optimize the output of the organization and to upgrade the human capitals too.''

''Organizational development is a long term planning to permanently improve the organization by various artificial interferences.''

Organizational development take into consideration the human side of the organization.

Various social and behavioral sciences used to carry on the process of organizational development are as:-

A. Anthropology

B. Sociology organization and find out methods to artificially indulge in the organizational development process and to train the

C. Psychology

D. Social-Psychology

E. Economics

F. Theories of organizations

G. Organizational behavior

The above mentioned subjects helped a lot the experts to find out means and ways to improve and upgrade the human capital with latest know hows.


Organizational development as per various experts:-


B.Bennis:- ''Organizational development is response to change a complex educational strategy intended to change the values, attitudes , beliefs and structure of the organization so that they can better adapt the new technologies, markets and challenges and the dizzying rate of change itself.''

B. Porras-R-Son:- ''Organizational development is a set of behavioral sciences based theories, values, strategies and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance through the alterations of the organizational members on the job behavior.''

C. Bruke:- ''Organizational development is a planned process of change in a organization's culture through the utilization of the behavioral science technologies , research and theory.''

D. Cummings and Worley:- ''It is a systematic application of the behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of the organizational strategies, structures and the process of improving an organization's effectiveness.''


Organizational development can be traced long back in the 1950s. Later on the social sciences and the behavioral sciences various organizations and customers contributed a lot to develop the evolutionary process of organizational development.

Organizational development is in the evolutionary stage only. There are various elements which is still in process to develop organizational development, they are as follows:-

a. Field survey research of the targeted organizations and its people is the first one.

b.Innovative indoor research of various cultures of the organizations and the complex network of the human elements of the organization.

c. The action research and its applications to develop the organization and its people.


e. The reporting of stage wise improvement of each stage. If required change the course and intensity of action.

f. Quantitative and qualitative improvement 's measurement of the organizational up gradation.

g. The effects of the social factors.


a. Organizational development includes the whole organization. The organization climate, organization culture, the organization structure, the organization hierarchy the human capital network all are subjected to organizational development.

b. All the organizational human capitals are targetrd to change. Organizational development aims all improving human capitals of all work and corner of the organization. The whole gamut of the human research are influenced by organizational development.


d. The effects of social / behaviors of human beings are taken into account. Organizational development aims at changing from the social points of view with the help of various behavioral sciences.

d .It involves research as the part of its process. Behavioral research, survey research, action research and field researches are involved in organizational development.

e. Every levels of the organization are targeted for improvement. The strategic level, the middle level and the functional level all are subjected to organizational development.

f. Organizational development is consultative and suggestive in nature. Organizational development prescribes and gives ways and means to develop the organization.

g.Views every thing as social complex things. The social angle of any organization is considered the most.

h. Evolution is continual and stage wise. Organizational development is still in the evolutionary process

Germany entering 2nd decade of stagnation. A model of world in '70s and '80s. Reputation as Europe's unchanging core. History of blaming others for problems. Some looking inward for causes. Problem traced to job-protection law of '50s. Unions block proposals to reform labor laws.

8. Why OD?

Here the reasons will be discussed why OD is required in any organization .Most cited reasons for beginning the change program:

The level of competition which exist in the business world forces the subject organization to change to adjust with the changing business world .

For the survival of the organization in the changing environment OD is required .

For better outputs of groups and improved performance of the organization OD is required .

Primary Goals of Change Programs

The basic aim of the change are as ---

Increase productivity of the organization and increase the profit of the organization by proper cost and resources control . The next aim of OD is to increase responsiveness. Then to reposition the organization and change the inner core of organization so, that to improve competitive position. This will help the organization to survive for long . The OD process further aims at the increase employee involvement in different organizational processes . This will increase the motivation and encouragement , dedication and commitment and will increase employee morale. OD aims at improving the decision making capacities , the group activities and to develop new managerial skills among the employees of the lower stratas .

Table 1.2Major Goals of Large-Scale Change Programs

Major goals of change

1. Competitive positioning

2. Better survival techniques

3. More outputs

4. Better responses

5. Increased involvement / moral

6. Develop decision making / managerial skills

Factors Leading to Emergence of OD

There are different factors which will activate OD in the organization .

Need for new organizational forms----- With the changing and developing world new forms of organization with improved and flattened structure are required .

Focus on cultural change.------ When the culture of the organization become a problem in the path of organizational development then culture is required is to be change . This is a slow and long process .

Increase in social awareness.----- Also caused the emergence of OD . And further it is known that the Only Constant Is Change. SO, change in organization is can not avoided .

Today's managers need new mind-set. ----- Today's manager work in a different way for fulfilling the organizational goal by any ethical means . They use the rule of flexibility and innovation with right speed in the right direction .

Constantly changing conditions.----- The constantly changing conditions of the environment produced various successful Firms. They share these traits of working at a faster rate . They are very much quality conscious . They belief in delivering quality , goods and services .They encourage employees involvement in the customer oriented activities and other organizational operations too.

Figure 1.2Changing Organization of Twenty-First Century

Structure change

Technology Changing Organization Process change


HR change

OD in Practice: Trilogy Software

Trilogy Software example of shifting organizational structures. Workers are shareholders, managers, and partners. The biggest worry is not facing down other businesses. It depends on talented people. The Economy is fostering new kinds of practices.

This case shows major element in planned change is planning for organizational culture.

Evolution of OD

Evolved since the late 1940s.

NTL Laboratory-Training methods.

Survey research and feedback.

8. Who Does OD?

The OD practitioners consist of specialists and those applying OD in daily work:

The professionals and specialists trained in OD. They are from outside of the organization and are called the external consultants . The managers and leaders applying OD. They are from the organization it self and are called the internal consultants .

OD specialists:

Internal practitioners ' They are CEO , top management staffs or influential person from within organization. These people are interested in the OD process and use their power and authority to plan and execute OD.

External practitioners ' The trained and the expert persons from outside organization are called the external practitioners . They are OD professionals who entre in to contract with the organization to bring organizational transformation .

Activities include:

The different function of the OD consultants are to work on the group level / team level to develop the teams and to develop new leaders among the team members . They further aim at inter group collaboration and cooperation so, that quality can be achieved in every sphere of the organization and to activate total quality management in the organization. The consultants try to create an organization that easily interacts and give responses to change in the environment . Thus creating boundary less environment . The consultants changes the organizational climate and the corporate culture of the organization by altering the following ' The dress code , the pattern of organizational behaviour , the value systems , the norms and the beliefs of the people .

Socialization Process

This is the very vital process which is applicable specially to the newly recruited employees of the organization . By means of these process the employees are socialized with the organizational norms and rules . This is a process to introduce to the culture . This is a process that adapts employees to culture. The new employees become aware of norms. The employees encounter culture. Individuals understand power, status, rewards, and sanctions. The responsibilities and risk in the culture are known by the employees with the help of socialization of process .

Figure 1.3The Socialization Process

New employees + Norms / Values / Culture / jobs Socialization Process

Senior employees

Adjustment to Cultural Norms and Socialization Occurs in Three Ways

They are as----

Rebellion ' The rejection of all values and norms occur in this stage . In this process all rebels against the ground rules regulations of the organization .

Conformity ' The second way to adjust is the acceptance of all values and norms of the organization .

Creative individualism ' The third way is the acceptance only of pivotal values; rejection of all others.

Figure 1.4 Basic Responses to Socialization

Rejection stage Acceptance stage Pivotal acceptance

Psychological Contract

It is the unwritten agreement between the individuals and the organization and are the open-ended so that issues may be renegotiated.

A Model for Change

OD is continuing process with emphasis on viewing organization as total system of interacting and interrelated elements . A model to simplify the planning of OD and execution of OD is very essential . Model based works are having more percentages of success than others . Let us analyze and know about a five stage model of OD process .

Figure 1.5 Organization Development's Five Stages

Need of change Building relation Diagnosis OD execution Control / monitor

& feed back

9. Five-stage Model for OD Process

Stage one: Anticipating the need for change. Someone recognizes the need for change.

There must be felt need for change. To cope up with the changing world and to develop the organization the top management and the executives want to transform the under develop or the faulty elements in the organization . Thus in the initial stage and essential need of change is detected out .

Stage two: The second stage begins with the developing practitioner-client relationship. The external consultants are contracted and various ground rules are establish for working of the internal and external OD team . The OD practitioner enters system and introduced to the organization . Good first impressions and match important .There must be the proper adjustment of the organization and the external change agent. The practitioner establishes trust, open communication and shared responsibility to build a relationship .

Stage three: This is the diagnostic phase. Here the problem is properly analyzed to highlight the actual area to work with . The practitioner and client gather data about system. The main aim is to understand client's problems, identify forces causing situation, and select change strategies. The data are tabulated and analyzed to develop proper action plan .

Stage four: The action plans, the strategies, and the techniques to implement the analyzed the OD process practically are framed . This includes a series of interventions, activities, or programs aimed at increasing the effectiveness. The programs apply OD techniques. OD implemented.

Stage five: In the final stage the renewal has occurred .The OD team monitor cautiously for improvement and stabilizes the process . As the OD program stabilizes, need for practitioner decreases. Results been monitored and change stabilized . Gradual disengagement of OD practitioner occurs . The contract of the OD consultants ends .

Questions for discussion -----

1. Explain OB ? Hoe it is related with OD ?

2. Define organization ? What are its various elements ? Explain internal and external organizational environment ?

3. Who is a manager ? Explain the skills of a manager ?

4. Who are the OD specialists ?

5. Explain the model of change ? With the help of proper diagram

Key Words and Concepts

Action research model - collecting information, feeding back to client, developing and implementing action programs.

Change leader - person responsible for change.

Client - person or organization that is being assisted.

Creative individualism - questioning of peripheral norms, accepting of pivotal norms.

External practitioner - person from outside organization who serves as resource for change.

Internal practitioner - internal resource for change.

Norms - organized and shared ideas regarding what members should do and feel, how behavior should be regulated, and what sanctions should be applied.

Organization culture - system of shared meanings, including language, dress, values, norms of organization.

Organization development - planned strategy to bring about change.

OD practitioner - people using, advocating, and assisting others to implement OD.

OD specialist - professional who has specialized and trained in OD and related areas.

Peripheral norms - support and contribute to pivotal norms but not essential to organization's objectives.

Pivotal norms - essential to organization's objectives.

Psychological contract - expectations between individual and organization.

Socialization - process of individual adjusting to organization's culture.

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