Sustainable Construction Practices In Developing Countries

Master thesis
A focus in Nepalese context

List of Abbreviation
UNCHS United Nation Center for Human Settlements
USAID United State Agency for International Development
UNEP United Nation Environment Program
IETC International Environmental Technology Centre
BREEAM Building Research Establishment Environmental
Assessment Method
CI Construction Industry
UN United Nation
DC Developing Country
IUCN The Union of Conservation Scientist
WWF World Wide Fund
CIB International Council for research and Innovation in
GDP Gross Domestic Product
WB World Bank
R and D Research and Development
UN-ESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for
Asia and the Pacific
WHO World Health Organization
GHG Green House Gases
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
NGO Non Governmental Organization
CBO Community Based Organization
SBAT Sustainable Building Assessment Tool
LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
ODA Overseas Development Agencies
SCP Sustainable Construction Practice
VSBK Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln
DMAN Deutsche Management Akademie Niedersachsen
FNCSI Federation of Nepal Cottage and Small Industries
EU European Union
SPM Suspended Particulate Matter
SCA Supply Chain Actors
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
HDI Human Development Index
FY Fiscal Year
m. Meters Square kilometer

The alarming condition of our environment today has been probably one of the
most discussed and researched topics globally. Researchers and professionals
believe that construction is one of the important factors in socio economic
expansion of any nation and has horrendous effect on the biosphere as well.
The conditions are worst in developing countries and are escalated even more
because of various complex problems like poverty, social inequality, resource
scarcity, inappropriate working ethics, unorganized systems etc. Therefore,
there is an urgency to adopt new practices in developing countries to not only
foster its socio economic growth but also to make a positive impact on towards
global problems. Construction industry along with being a major contributor to
country's economy is also a massive destructor of our biosphere. So its time to
think about change in construction pattern that brings out a new dimension in
social, economic and environmental perspective.
This paper addresses the construction scenario that prevails in the developing
countries, especially focusing on Nepal. It aims to explain the factors
responsible for present situation giving idea about different barriers,
opportunities and benefits regarding new approach in construction. It also talks
about the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders and their area of action.
Overall the paper studies the scope of sustainable practices in Nepal with some
1. Introduction
1.1 Background
Our quest to address human comfort, demands and convenience has made us
very short sighted. To achieve our needs, we have stepped beyond our
boundaries set by our nature. We have absurdly utilized our raw materials as if
they were limitless, we have started construction almost anywhere we like to
build; we have plundered into our resources thinking they were endless. This
mindset of ours have threatened the ecosystem, which should be changed
before it's too late. Our inhuman activities must come to an end and should start
incorporating sustainable practices. Sustainable practices mean initiatives taken
that lead to an ecological balance with human well being. These solutions must
focus on meeting the growing needs of the country along with ensuring long
term economic stability including social equity, which can be achieved thorough
sustainable construction. The ways of sustainable construction differs from
country to country. The glimpse of today's global scenario clearly divides the
world into two distinct group- The Developed and the Developing countries.
1.1.1 The developing country
UN, 1971 defines developing countries as a country having low per capita GDP
resulting to low living standard, lower literacy rate and with a low level of
material well-being. The challenges faced by Developing countries in daily basis
are unsafe society, lack of education, uncertain economic environment, poverty
and disease, inadequate infrastructure, rapid urbanization etc.
Sustainable construction in developing country is plagued by complex problems
like energy crises, water scarcity, poverty, social inequity etc. therefore it's
urgent to make sustainable intervention now rather than correcting the issues
later. In the developed countries, sustainability has already been in practices
but the intervention of the developed countries cannot be copied by the
developing world as it may not be feasible also the priorities are completely
different in two types of world. Realizing the concern of sustainability there are
different international agencies helping across the boarder. Some of which are
USAID, UNEP, IETC. ( Du Plessis, 2004).
List of developing countries as declared by the World Bank:
Albania Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus
Bosnia &
Belarus Kosovo Macedonia
Serbia & Montenegro Moldova Turkey Ukraine
Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Tunisia
Angola Benin Botswana Burkina
Cameroon Central African Rep. Djibouti Guinea Kenya
Congo Rep. Ethiopia Guinea-
Chad Congo, Dem. Rep Gabon Lesotho Mali
Comoros Cote d'Ivoire Gambia Liberia Mauritania
Eritrea Equatorial Guinea Ghana Madagascar Mauritius
Namibia Mozambique Niger Senegal Seychelles
Nigeria Sao Tome &
St. Helena Somalia Uganda
Rwanda South Africa Sierra
Swaziland Zambia
Togo South Sudan Sudan Tanzania Zimbabwe
Anguilla Antigua &
Belize Dominica El Salvador
Grenada Costa Rica Cuba Mexico Panama
Guatemala Dominican
Haiti Montserrat St. Lucia
Honduras St. Kitts &
Jamaica Nicaragua St.Vincent&Grenadines
Argentina Brazil Colombia Guyana Peru Uruguay
Bolivia Chile Ecuador Paraguay Suriname Venezuela
Afghanistan China, (excl. Hong
India Maldives Nepal
Bangladesh East Timor Indonesia Mongolia Philippines
Bhutan Korea Dem. Rep Kazakhstan Pakistan Thailand
Burma Kyrgyz Rep Laos Sri Lanka Uzbekistan
Cambodia Turkmenistan Malaysia Tajikistan Vietnam
Iran Iraq Jordan Lebanon Syria West Bank and Gaza
Micronesia, Federated
Palau Islands Niue
Fiji Marshall Islands Samoa Tonga
Kiribati Papua New Guinea Tokelau Tuvalu
Nauru Wallis & Futuna Solomon Is Vanuatu
Table 1 List of Developing countries (Ministry of foreign affairs)
Keeping the timeframe on track, the developing countries can either choose to
follow the footsteps of the developed countries or opt for new sustainable model
development. Sustainable development issues are global and the rate of
developing countries towards addressing them is same as the developed
countries. To increase this rate, a developing country heavily depends upon
large-scale physical infrastructure and therefore is an urge for sustainable
construction practices.
1.2 Problems
Developing countries are competing within themselves in a rapid pace in order
to get a tag of a developed country. In this whole race they are ignorant about
the negative impact of their activities to the built environment. Today a massive
development is required in these DC in their environmental sector as well as
physical infrastructure.
As we all know 'Prevention is better than cure', it's always good to be prepared
beforehand rather than try and change things later. The construction pattern in
most of the DC are horrifying, exposing human lives to a greater risk of disaster
such as health hazards, natural calamities etc. Such construction growth also
has an immense impact on limited natural resources. Energy consumption,
waste generation, pollution is nowadays an ongoing process on a daily basis as
consumer are unaware about the future conditions. Also such developmental
practices are directly or indirectly a result of the political scenario of the
respective country. One cannot stop the ever-growing scattered settlement until
a law is strict against it. When legal institutions are silent regarding the matter,
the change is next to impossible.
Apart from above scenario, other problem that hindrances sustainable
development in DC is infrastructure. In DC, there is a need of accessibility to
adequate productive resources, which is considered to be a key to
sustainability. A proper knowledge of sustainability is yet to be distributed to the
mass where sustainability is simply understood as addition to initial construction
cost because they are unaware of long-term advantages.
The problems of DC's mentioned above are not permanent in nature though.
They can be resolved through considerable changes in people's way of
thinking, legal policies and laws and majorly through the building and
construction industry. All that requires is an efficient and adoptable approach.
1.3 Objectives
The aim and objective of this research paper is to study the importance of
sustainability in today's blooming world. It helps to understand the scenario and
challenges of sustainable construction in developing countries and figure out
the possibilities for feasible implementation of sustainable approach. It also
portrays the bonding between sustainability and construction industry,
considering it to be vital to promote country's economic aspect and strengthen
country as a whole. It addresses the crucial pre-requisites for developing
sustainable construction to understand integration of sustainability with efficient
management of resources, infrastructure and shared responsibilities thus
improving capacity of construction sector.
1.4 Methodology
The relevant data was collected for the paper through different sources such as
articles, journals, books and reports. Many related case studies were studied to
get a clear vision of the prevailing scenario. The literature review helped to
concretize the rough idea of the paper. Further some case studies were carried
out to understand the matter deeply. It described the initiatives being taken to
adopt sustainability. The next level was the analysis part, which helped to
realize the various aspects to be considered such as social, economic,
environmental as we all political. The analysed data thus helped to reveal the
challenges, opportunities and strength of sustainability in developing countries.
Last was the result phase of the paper, which included certain suggestions and
recommendations regarding the topic. It was derived through a concept made
clear by going through literature review and data analysis.
2. Sustainability
2.1 Definition
Sustainability today is a major term included in every agenda of almost every
country, similar to the fashion trend blindly being followed by one from other,
without understanding the concept beyond it. Many efforts have been made in
developed countries regarding sustainability at different levels but the word still
hasn't received that importance in developing countries. In reality it isn't that
complex term. The term was first used by a German forester and a scientist,
Hans Carl in 1713 in his book, Sylvicultura Oeconomica. But it was recognized
only after the Brundtland Report, 1987, from World Commission on
Environment and Development defined it as '
'Sustainability is to meet the needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.'
Until today it is recognized as the standard definition of sustainability, which
clears the concept of providing best to humans and its environment now and
also in future.
The International Union of Conservation Scientists (IUCN), United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Wide Fund for Nature
(WWF) define sustainable as,
'Sustainability is improving the quality of human life while living within the
carrying capacity of the Earth's supporting eco-systems.'
These days, there are thousands of definitions regarding sustainability but the
major understanding remains same, which are:
' Understanding the interconnection between economy, society and
' Knowing human limits regarding resources
For better understanding, Sustainability has been divided into 3 types, which is
stated by World commission on environment and development, 1987:
' Environmental sustainability
' Social sustainability
' Economic sustainability
2.1.1 Environmental Sustainability
Environmental sustainability can be understood, as 'meeting human needs
without compromising the health of ecosystem' (Morelli, 2011). It is the capacity
of environment to support and maintain its quality and resources. Today
environment depletion is a biggest issue especially in Developing Countries.
Figure 1 Principle of Sustainability (World commission on environment and development, 1987)
2.1.2 Social Sustainability
It is the ability of a system to function properly for social well-being at different
level, where the system may comprise of a family, an organization or a country
as a whole. A society is an acting force to drive a nation's economy and
2.1.3 Economic Sustainability
The ability to support economic production at a defined level is understood as
economic sustainability.
The three pillars of sustainability are highly interconnected which ensures longterm
well-being of human and promotes a quality living. Sustainability is more
likely to be efficient when these components are combined rather than they
being compromised for the sake of construction. When the importance of each
pillars are clearly understood it significantly helps in decision-making process
for a healthy and enhanced standard of living.
2.2 Principles of Sustainability
Nowadays there are lots of articles, journals emerging in context with
sustainability and its underlying principles. The information obtained are vast
and vague, so the RIO Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992,
has published the principles of sustainability which helps to understand the
concept clearly, which are as follows-
' The present development should not dominate the development and
environmental needs of future.
' Every individual have equal right to a healthy and productive life.
' The nation has every right to use its resources but responsibly.
' Unsustainable pattern of growth should be avoided by nation by
balancing the production and consumption ratio.
' Demographic policies should be promoted along with reducing disparities
in standard of living.
' Public should be made aware of the ecological issues and encouraged
for their participation.
' Effective laws and authorities should be categorized for strong
implementation of the rules from administrative side.
' Public and private sector should also cooperate at a regional level.
2.3 Objective
The objective of sustainability can be listed as:
' Offer fundamental human needs
' Control climate change
' Overall economic growth of nation
Figure 2 Aspects of Sustainability (verify sustainability, 2006)
' Accommodating the urbanization
' Sustain biodiversity
Figure 3 Importance of Sustainability (Sustainability report 2010)
3. Construction industry
3.1 Introduction
Construction is a key factor for country's economic growth. A country's
development is directly proportional to its construction activity level. Wells, 1985
in his book, The Construction Industry in Development Context, defines
construction as:
'The activity of the creation of physical infrastructure, superstructure and
related facilities. It therefore comprises all civil-engineering work and all types
of new building projects (including housing), as well as the maintenance and
repair of existing structures'.
The CIB Agenda 21 (Plessis, 2002a) explains construction as:
'The broad process/mechanism for the realization of human settlements and
the creation of infrastructure that supports development. This includes the
extraction and beneficiation of raw materials, the manufacturing of
construction materials and components, the construction project cycle from
feasibility to deconstruction and the management and operation of the built
The Construction Industry is therefore regarded as a vital prerequisite to socioeconomic
growth and development (J, 1986). (Ofori, 1990), defines
Construction Industry as:
'That sector of the economy which plans, designs, construct, alters,
maintains, repairs and eventually demolishes buildings of all kinds, civil
engineering work, mechanical and electrical engineering structures and other
similar works'.
Another explanation, which conquered the idea on Construction Industry, was
suggested by (Moavenzadeh, 1978), as:
'That sector of the economy which, through planning, design, construction,
maintenance and repair and operation, transforms various resources into
constructed facilities. The types of public and private facilities produced
range from residential and non-residential buildings to heavy construction'.
The outcome of the construction activity contributes a greater chunk of
economic support to its nation. These activities comprises of planning,
designing, structure, maintenance as well as its demolition. Today, the CI can
simply be referred to a service industry, which transforms the resources into
physical entity, thus shaping up the nation. The construction of the entire
physical infrastructure then stimulates the growth of the socio economic
development. The infrastructure also reflects the social values and culture of the
nation attracting foreign exchange.
The CI cannot run solely by an individual with a motive to support entire nation.
It needs various members from various sectors such as designers, contractors,
consultants, companies, firms, equipment and material suppliers, builders,
merchants as well as the end users who finally use them. For a CI to sustain in
its practice, a cordial relation between all its stakeholders is a must have. In
many countries, government acts as a client, financer, regulator as well as an
operator (Work, 2003). The figure below gives us an idea of disproportionate
growth of population, GDP and construction in developing countries.
Figure 4 comparisons on population, GDP and construction (Shaddad 1979)
3.2 Objectives of Construction Industry Development
CI is a complex and diverse area of workshop, which is influenced by various
aspects at various stages and levels as well. For CI to play its role safely in
supporting country's economy, it has to have that capacity and ability to meet
the demand of its people. Therefore, the CI development is very necessary
especially in the emerging nation's context. The development of CI should take
place in a deliberate manner in order to improve the effectiveness of the
industry to fulfil the economic need of the nation. It should mainly focuses on:
' Understanding the efficiency of domestic productivity and its competitive
' Valuing the social, economic and environmental responsibility.
' Enhancing the role of stakeholders, institutions, and technological
enablers along with appropriate development of human resources (Work,
2003; Ofori, 2012).
Depending upon the national goals and limited availability of the raw materials,
the CI sometimes needs to be capital oriented, if not there are high chances for
the industry to sink (Work, 2003; Ofori, 2012). A model developed by Fox and
Skitmore (2006) show six important traditional and cultural factors that influence
the development of CI.
Figure 5 Generic model of factors influencing construction industry (Fox and
Skitmore, 2006)
3.3 Role of CI in national development
'If Construction moves, everything moves', this French saying is very famous
within the industry of the developed countries. No wonder, the CI there has
grown up to be the backbone of their economy.
CI is an integral and most probably the largest part of a nation's economic
structure. According to different surveys and reports, construction contributes
anywhere around 5% to 10% of the GDP in all countries. In addition, it also
reduces unemployment by engaging 10% of its working population and thus
acts as a catalyst to generate employment within the community. Construction
alone is credited for half of the country's gross fixed capital generation. (Lopes,
et al., 2000; Ofori, 2012)
As described earlier, CI is a function of various organization and sectors
bonding together at various levels. Thus, a movement in CI stimulates activities
in all the threaded sectors, contributing to its national economy (Ofori, 2012). It
generates income in formal as well as informal sectors and also provides
foreign exchange income through different trades.
When we look back into the history, nation like Germany was once in a terrible
state of destruction due to massive World War. But today it stands as a
powerful nation of the world with its magnificent housing and industrial
structures. The reason behind this huge transformation is their mature
construction industries that provided Germany a new identity and strength to re
stand and reshape its nation (Bakiy, 2013). Construction activities generate
infrastructure, which is crucial for achieving developmental targets like equitable
income, industrialization, urbanization and many more.
According to a survey from World Bank (2008), increase of a unit in expenditure
has a multiplier effect in CI as it efficiently generates income nearly as five times
the cost of unit increased. On the whole, CI by itself is a largest industry that
promotes investment, employment and GDP contribution on its own (Uher &
Lawson, 1998).
The CI functions as an engine for fulfilling wide perspectives of physical,
economical and social demands, and contributes enormously to achieve
national goals. The construction sector within no time has gained a significant
charm as an area for experimenting different cooperative works. It is all
because of the nature of its operation, its diverse prospects and position in
developmental activity (Moavenzadeh, 1978).
Duccio Turin in 1978 developed a set of indicators that relates the construction
output with economic performance. The indicators are listed below-
(International, 1978)
' Addition in GDP due to construction
' Additional value in Construction per capita
' Employment benefit due to construction
' Value added in Construction per person employed
' Ratio of value added per person employed in construction to value added
per person employed in manufacturing
Figure 6 Construction industry output in dollar from 1964 to 2012 (census 2012)
' Ratio of added value in construction to value added in built-up
' Wages in construction and manufacturing
' Efficiency in construction and manufacturing
3.4 CI in Developing Country
Although the construction industry has been recognized as the backbone of the
nation for national development, it faces thousands of problems and challenges
on daily basis. This situation occurs almost every day across the globe, may it
be developing country or the developed.
However, the challenges faced by the DC are more severe type being followed
by socio-economic stress, shortage of resources, inconvenient transportation,
political instability, weak institution etc. In general, it's the inability to tackle with
the key issues and therefore the problems are getting bigger and bigger by
passing years (Ofori, 2012). With the rapid urbanization, the seriousness of
challenges are increasing significantly, disturbing the modes and methods of
planning, designing, building, maintenance etc. Even though these problems
have somehow resulted in invention of new technologies, it is not as effective as
it is supposed to be in solving the problems in DC because the issues are more
serious, complex and deeply rooted. There are some historical problems as
well, which needs time to get solved. Some major prevailing issues are
mentioned below:
3.4.1 Political Instability
Political instability is an acute issue in DC, and provides unfriendly environment
for foreign developers and investors. The chronic violence, riots,
demonstrations that occur frequently in such countries creates hurdles in the
path of construction. The destruction of existing infrastructure is the major
targets during such movements. Corruption is another factor that is related with
politics. It leads to favouritism, which eventually results in wrong decisionmaking
and inappropriate activities (Elkhalifa, 2011).
3.4.2 Scarce Resources
Almost all the countries are gifted with natural resources; it depends on the
user's choice to make it beneficial or useless. Even though the DC are blessed
with such natural resources, it cannot effectively make use of them due to
shortage of trained or skilled labourers or experienced professional and
sometimes due to lack of the capital needed. Besides the fact that CI acts as a
major contributor in GDP of DC, at times finance remain as constraints without
which no industry can step further (elKhalifa, 2011).
3.4.3 Unskilled and Inexperienced workforce
The construction sector of DC widely depends upon the freelance unskilled
seasonal workforce. This working group perform their task as instructed by the
contractors and move from one construction site to another for employment.
These labourers most of the time turn out to be unreliable as they leave the
working place once they get a better deal. Since they are not educated and
legally committed, they don't follow their ethics and can't prove to be profitable
(elKhalifa, 2011).
3.4.4 Poor Infrastructure
It's commonly known that infrastructure is directly proportional to productivity.
When the infrastructure is poor, it results in low productivity. The infrastructure
of DC is in pitiable condition without good accessibility, transportation,
communication, utilities etc thus being responsible for slowing down the
construction process (elKhalifa, 2011).
3.4.5 Bad Practice
In DCs, the construction sector suffers a lot from lack of motivation and
discipline. Due to low literacy rate, the ethical values are not remembered. Even
the institutional policy needs to be revised. Sometimes the lengthy legal
procedures slow down the progress of the industry. Also the unpredictable
fluctuations in the prices of materials leads to increased cost of the project
forcing the contractor to multiply the budget. The other bad practice boiling up is
the tendering process. This doesn't allow the small contractors to participate or
win the contract because of unreliable, unskilled, inexperienced workers,
absence of ability to cover additional expense and ineffective technology to
carry bigger projects (elKhalifa, 2011).
3.4.6 Globalization
The raving trend of Globalization has prominent probability to give rise to social
and economic inequality. The interaction of information, technology, market and
economy within different countries are good ways to get expose d to foreign
markets and develop foreign lending's. But this increases foreign participation
into the industry pushing away the indigenous contractor. But the interference of
the foreign contractors is good in certain manner. Edmons and Miles (1984) and
the World Bank (1984) have observed that some international projects that
happen in DC can be undertaken only under international supervision (Turin,
1973). These authors state that foreign collaboration is prominent with large
construction companies in DC.
Advantage Disadvantage
Involvement of international finance
makes possible the implementation of
several projects, such as those of
major infrastructure.
Local construction firms have no
funds or expertise to participate in the
sponsorship of privatised projects.
Direct foreign investment in projects
leads to increase in construction
demand, creating work opportunities
for local firms.
Local construction companies lack
the technical and managerial
capability to undertake most of the
foreign-funded projects
Competition among foreign firms
lowers the costs of projects to
It is possible that local firms will be
deprived of the opportunity to grow
developing countries.
Presence of large numbers of
international firms offers scope for
technology transfer and the
development of local firms and
upgrading of the industry. The large
number of such firms also means that
technology transfer can be a tool for
Foreign construction firms may pay lip
service to technology transfer or take
measures to avoid it. Moreover, local
companies may not be in a position to
benefit from technology transfer, or to
subsequently utilise the acquired
Table 2 Advantages and disadvantages of globalization (G.Ofori, 2000)
The impact of globalization in CI of the Developing world should be studied
deeply to find out the ways of minimizing the adverse effect and maximize the
benefits. The local contractors should acquire knowledge on relevant subjects
from its foreign counterparts to upgrade its experience and skills (Elkhalifa,
Studies show that a major portion of construction activities in DC is performed
by informal sector (Moavenzadeh, 1978; Wells, 1985. In addition, the demand
for housing is steadily rising which is beyond the supply capacity of these
nations. In many DC, around 30-70% of its housing stock is unauthorized
(elKhalifa, 2011). So if the output of this informal sector is to be considered, the
outcome of the construction activity will increase considerably.
To sum up we can say that the CI of the DC lacks skills, technologies,
resources and funding. Moreover the problems get deeper when the
government ignores the condition and doesn't warm up to address them. The
level of commitment and the legal execution is simply not adequate to improve
overall socio-economic condition of the nation (Elkhalifa, 2011).
The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS, 1996) encloses
the issues of CI in DC as:
Figure 7 place of CI in economy in developing and developed world (the
construction and building material industries for sustainable development in
developing countries, 2011)
'Key building materials are scarce and expensive; access to finance is
limited; much needed equipment and machinery are not easily available;
skilled workforce is underdeveloped; and other supporting mechanisms,
such as regulatory systems and research efforts, have had little or no
impact on the development trends of the industry. A further problem is that
large amounts of capital are needed to pay for large-scale infrastructure
with the financial returns coming over a long period. Such projects are only
profitable when considered over a time period that is longer than most
commercial investments. Investors are reluctant to commit capital to long
term projects when other investment opportunities give a more rapid payback
and when there is uncertainty about the future demand for new
(Ofori, 1994b) summarizes the problems as:
'Most developing countries have abundant human resources. However,
they face shortages of skilled construction personnel owing to inadequate
educational and training facilities and programmes. Construction
enterprises show little interest in human resource development; they adopt
casual employment practices. The level of technological development of
the industries is also low. This is due to inadequate R&D facilities and
programmes, poor linkage between research and practice and foreign
exchange difficulties which hinder the importation of equipment and
Ofori during his research came up with a flowchart that fluctuates the CI of DCFigure
8 factors fluctuating CI of the DC (Ofori 1993a)
Different matrix was derived by Turin and Ofori, which categorized the CI of the
DCs and helped to understand the requirements of the industry and assess its
capacity for improvement.
The current study simplifies the categorization of the CI which can be described
Residential Houses,
Commercial Schools,
Governmental building, renovating, maintenance,
repair, and demolition of government
Figure 9 categorization on CI in DC (Turin, 1973; Ofori 1993a)
Industrial Crematoriums,
Infrastructure Bridges,
Table 3 latest categorization of CI ( source: Construction Industry Portal,
3.5 Impacts of construction industry
The CI plays an important role in developing socio economic status of the
nation. They are responsible in planning, designing, developing infrastructures
along with many other activities, which directly or indirectly has significant
impact on the built environment. In order to drive the economic growth and fulfil
the nation's demand, the CI has been focusing on new inventions and
technologies regularly. In this pace they are forgetting that these activities can
have several consequences on the ecology. The impact of the construction
industry can be categorized as- (Plessis, 2002a)
' Environmental impact
' Social impact
' Economic impact
3.5.1 Environmental Impact
Today developing countries are undergoing enormous number of construction
process as compared to Developed countries. Also because the level of
industrialization is very low here thus making Construction sectors a biggest
positive contributor in economy. At the same time they are the biggest culprits in
polluting our environment through its activities. According to studies by World
watch Institute, 2012, 40% of the raw sand, gravel and stone is solely
consumed by building construction yearly. Each year building accounts for 40%
of energy consumption as well as 16% of water globally. This results in
ecological misbalance and resource depletion. Global warming, a major threat
of today is one of the severe and visible result (Baloi, 2003).
The prime offender of climate change is modern construction material like
concrete and steel. The massive GH emission takes place while processing
such materials resulting pollution. The other factor is waste generation from
manufacture and demolition process, which are dumped irresponsibly. The
construction site of DC generally occupies the entire area destroying the
greeneries. (Plessis, 2002). The table below explain the impact of construction
industry to the built environment.
What is used Where it is built How it is built What is built
Where raw
materials are
Location of
facility; nature of
terrain and
alternative uses
of the land
Methods of
construction on
Planning and
design of facility
(e.g. potential of
day lighting and
How raw
materials are
extracted; how
land is restored
after extraction (if
proximity to water
sources and
systems (e.g.
How raw
materials are
Social disruption
Site control
Extent of use of
energy and other
processed displacement of
site's inhabitants)
(housekeeping) resources in
operation of
Whether, and
how renewable
raw materials are
disruption (e.g.
loss of livelihoods
of previous
Welfare of site
neighbours and
general public
Ease of
demolition of
How materials
are transported
to, and stored on,
need for
expansion to
serve new
building, its
(including waste
Recycling and
reuse of
demolition waste
How materials
are moved on site
Impact on local
vehicular traffic
Table 4 Environmental impact and consideration of construction activities

3.5.2 Social Impact
Construction has its strong social impacts on the DC. It mainly deals with
professional ethics, sound business practices and labour relationships. When it
comes to political connections, the impact may be positive as well as negative.
If corruption takes birth, then the society may not benefit because of
inappropriate decision making resulting in substandard construction, use of
materials without quality thus compromising with the life of the occupants.
Social responsibilities are often ignored. Major of our working population are
illiterate and are not aware of safety techniques, which may lead to severe
accidents and sometimes death. The CI also generates employment making the
society strong and self-dependent (Plessis, 2002a).
3.5.3 Economic Impact
The CI has the capability to encourage economic growth through its
performance. It provides employment opportunities, which add up to the
economic aspects. It is able to generate income through material production
and its distribution, along with financial marketing and sale of the property.
(M.M, 2006) came up with a framework that identified the barriers and drivers
of the construction sector of the DC. It addresses the importance of CI in
building sustainable infrastructure to achieve sustainable goals (elKhalifa,
Figure 10 Drivers and barriers of CI in DC (M.M,2006)
4. Construction industry for sustainable development
4.1 The construction industry and sustainable construction
The CI apart from being one of the most considerable industries to aid up the
socio economic growth of the nation (especially in the DC) is also a greater
exploiter of the natural resources. The nature of the industry is complex and
unique in itself, which most of the time faces severe issues like crossing
deadline (70% of the project), cost overrun (14% of contract cost), waste
generation approximately 10% of the material cost etc (Memon, 2013; UNCHS,
Therefore CI should start being responsible towards the biosphere by following
sustainable measures. We all know that building, infrastructure and
environment are compactly interconnected. The CI provides us with physical
structures, which very soon becomes part of our living atmosphere hence
affecting our social well being and quality of living. It should therefore be given
due importance to promote environmentally friendly and economically sound
development techniques that are sustainable. In simple words, 'Sustainable
Construction' should be the new agenda (UNEP, 2004).
Sustainable construction can be perceived as a subset of sustainable
development applied to CI (Baloi, 2003)
In 1994, Charles Kibert during the first International Conference on
Sustainability (Kibert, 1994) described sustainable construction as:
'The creation and responsible management of a healthy built environment
based on resource efficient and ecological principles'
The international Council for Research and Innovation in Building and
Construction (CIB, 1999) explained sustainable construction as:
'The sustainable production, use, maintenance, demolition and reuse of
buildings and constructions or their components'
Another definition of sustainable construction is given by (Plessis, 2002a) as:
'A holistic process aiming to restore and maintain harmony between the
natural and built environments to create settlements that affirm human
dignity and encourage economic equity'.
Sustainable construction can be implied not only to new designs but also to the
old structure. The concept of sustainable construction is to promote
environmental sustainability, which embraces economic and social aspects to
enhance occupant's quality of life (Alsubeh, 2013).
4.2 Principle of sustainable construction
Sustainability is a self-motivating concept that requires flexibility and support
from decision makers and should prepare themselves to adopt a new approach
towards construction. The figure below shows the whole concept of sustainable
Sustainable construction must obey the principles of sustainable development
throughout the full construction cycle, known as 'Cradle-to-grave' (Uher &
Lawson, 1998). Sustainable construction can greatly be linked with the triple
bottom line (TBL) of sustainable development -
Figure 11 A relation model of sustainable development (Du Plessis, 2002)
4.2.1 Environmental Sustainability
The environmental sustainability in sustainable construction can be achieved
through following aspects:
' By reducing the use of non-renewable resources and increasing
efficiency of alternative material
' Promoting material recyclability
' Controlling the use of toxic materials
' Reducing the energy consumption while manufacturing and
supplying goods and services
' Using the available resources sparingly
' Thinking responsibly towards our ecosystem (Plessis, 2002a).
Figure 12 Annual Greenhouse Gas emission (The sustainable
development issues and built environment)
4.2.2 Economic Aspect
The economic dimension of sustainable construction is as follows:
' Taking life cycle cost in account
' Reducing external cost
' Reducing material waste
' Develop best possible ways of economic mechanism to
encourage sustainability (Plessis, 2002).
4.2.3 Social Aspect
The sustainable approach in social dimensions are-
' Active participation of stakeholders
' Encourage public participation
' Enhance the growth of appropriate institutions
' Impose strict rules and regulations regarding sustainability
' Assuring the quality of life by realising the impact of construction
on human health (Plessis, 2002a).
This includes process from extraction of raw materials to demolition of structure
Figure 13 The concept of sustainable construction (CIB 1999)
and reuse of its disposal. Along with the TBL of sustainable development,
sustainable construction encompasses aspects of technical and organizational
sustainability. The characteristics of Sustainable Construction are context
oriented which is why it has different approaches and priorities in different part
of the world. These approaches differ due to nature of problem and its severity,
capability of indigenous industry, available resources, technological inventions,
skills and experience of the workforce and cultural disparity (ElKhalifa, 2011).
4.3 Sustainable Construction in DCs
The concept of sustainability is new in the DC. It has not yet gained prominent
consideration and people still don't take sustainability as a priority (Elkhalifa,
2011). The impact of CI to sustainability is a global concern. However, the
concern of DC is different than the developed country. The DC has more
complex problems to deal with. It is high time now for the developing countries
Figure 14 Cradle to grave concept (Green Construction)
to seriously address and adopt the sustainable construction practises and help
towards global and regional problems like resources depletion, environmental
pollution, social and economic equity etc (Conte, 2002; Elkhalifa, 2011). The
efforts of the DC in incorporating sustainable construction are often blocked
because they perceive sustainability as a luxury addition, which only leads to
increase initial costing. In such countries sustainability is only about new
expensive technologies. They are ignorant about the fact that sustainability is
rather about promoting local and traditional practices but in updated ways (Du
Plessis, 2002). To simplify the study of Sustainable Construction of the DCs, it
is sub divided into following:
a) Barriers
b) Requirements
c) Opportunities
4.3.1 Barriers
The barriers of Sustainable Construction of the DCs can be listed as: Lack of capacity of the construction sector
One of the major barriers towards implementing sustainable construction is
inability of the construction industry to meet the demand of its clients. This lack
of capacity addresses problems like inadequate workforce as well as their skill
levels. DCs are deprived of professionals, skilled labourers who are capable of
supporting sustainable construction. As a result the CI of DC fail to meet the
need of the construction routine. The majority of the construction companies
consist of small contractors who depend upon seasonal workforce. This makes
the firm unreliable as these workers keep on moving in and out of the industry
as per their profit. This ultimately leads to ineffective construction failing to
encounter the requirement of Sustainable construction (Reffat, R. M., 2004b). An uncertain economic development
In DC, the formal construction sector fully depends upon the government
whereas the private sector has limited market base. Here the orders from
government frequently fluctuate with financial assistance that delays the
projects. The CI of the DC supports and relies on import of construction
materials and components. When the import prices are raised, the projects cost
are also sky raised (Reffat, R. M., 2004). Poverty and low urban investment
Studies show that there is a disproportionate graph between demographic
growth and urban investment in DC. The rate of population growth is much
higher than the rate of urban development. This action has resulted in
substandard living (Reffat, R. M., 2004).
This degradation not only harms the urban poor and their respective
environment but also the complete cityscape. Although there are some efforts
Figure 15 Urbanization in central Asia (UN-ESCAP, 2013)
being made to enhance the quality of living from governmental side as well as
private sector, the outcome are not satisfactory. Shortage of resources due to
increasing demographic projection have resulted the helping hands to struggle
to find a way to establish mainstream technologies (Reffat, R. M., 2004). Lack of accurate data
Accurate information is essential to achieve effective sustainable construction.
Data are required regarding available sustainable materials and their complete
life cycle analysis. Before using them blindly almost everywhere, the industry
should know every details about it. It is also important to have knowledge on the
technical mode of operation and the area in which they operate (Reffat, R. M.,
2004). Lack of interest in the issue of sustainability
The DC has been following traditional methods of construction and building
materials since ages. These methods of construction are deeply rooted with
historical values. Therefore it is very difficult to change the modes of operation
within limited time frame. Moreover the CI is dominated by the companies, who
are reluctant and hesitant towards technology change, which engage extra
capital and risk factor. Private sector loses interest to promote sustainability due
to lack of financial mechanism to encourage the change. On the whole the CI of
DC doesn't recognize sustainable practice as a competitive mean in indigenous
or global market (Reffat, R. M., 2004).
4.3.2 Requirement
The requirements of DC to attain sustainable construction lies on following
' Sustainability as necessity
' Effective management of resources
' Shared responsibility from
o Politicians,
o Manufacturers,
o Local authorities,
o Professionals
' Improvement in construction activity and products by
o Reducing waste
o Maximizing the use of recyclable materials
o Energy efficiency in structures
o Durability and maintenance
o Incorporating innovative ideas in construction
' Enhancing construction sector capacity
' Encouraging need for integrated approach
4.3.3 Opportunities
Along with barriers of Sustainable construction, there are opportunities for DC to
achieve sustainable construction as well (Plessis, 2002). Innovation in materials and technologies
In DC, despite of improved productivity, the conventional construction materials
will fall into shortage in long run. So we need to be careful while using it and opt
for some cost effective and environmental friendly material production through
appropriate technology. Some kind of such technological inventions are being
made by India, however they are still in demonstration stage (Plessis, 2002). Re-evaluating the traditional
Historically, the civilization of the past seemed to be aware of the importance of
their ecosystem, which is why the concept of sustainability was seen in early
tradition. Those traditional communities used available indigenous materials for
construction, which were well adapted to changing environment. Traditional
materials use benefits in terms of accessibility and are inexpensive (Plessis,
2002). Improving construction process
The construction process in DC needs to be improved considerably. Stable and
durable construction products should be encouraged for better quality of life.
Material wastage is another vital activity, which needs to be reduced
significantly (Plessis, 2002). Innovation in building material
The CI of the DC continuously uses natural resources that are already in limited
stage, thus depleting the resources. So, its now responsibility of the CI to focus
clearly on sustainable construction. The sustainable construction needs to use
the materials that don't hamper our ecosystem as well as human health.
Researches on these types of materials and encouraging such possible
changes allow the CI to make a huge difference on global sustainability
(Plessis, 2002). Environment health and safety
During the processing of the raw materials, a large amount of toxic gases are
released into the air causing environmental pollution. Also the toxic waste
generated in such processes are left untreated or dumped in river sites, which
further degrade our biosphere. Strategies for handling harmful materials like
asbestos needs to be prepared. Strict laws should be imposed regarding health
threat due to construction activities (Plessis, 2002).
4.3.4 Benefits of Sustainable Construction
Economic Social Environmental
Site Reduced cost for
site preparation
Improved aesthetics,
more transportation
option for employees
reduced resource
use, reduced
energy use,
Reduced annual
waste and water
Preservation of
water re- sources for
future generations
and for agricultural
and recreational
uses, fewer wastewater
Lower potable
water use and
discharge to
water- ways, less
strain on aquatic
ecosystems in
preservation of
water resources
for wildlife and
Lower initial
costs, lower fuel
and electricity
costs, reduced
peak power
reduced demand
for new energy
Improved comfort
conditions for
occupants, fewer
new power plants
and transmission
Lower electricity
and fossil fuel
use, less air
pollution and
fewer carbon
lowered impacts
from fossil fuel
production and
Materials and
Decreased initial
costs for reused
and recycled
materials, lower
waste disposal
costs, reduced
Fewer landfills,
greater markets for
preferable products,
de- creased traffic
due to the use of
Reduced strain
on landfills,
reduced use of
virgin re- sources,
forests, lower
costs for durable
reduced need for
new land- fills
energy and
pollution, increase
recycling markets
lower incidence
of absenteeism,
reduced staff
turnover, lower
insurance costs,
reduced litigation
Reduced adverse
health impacts,
improved occupant
comfort and
satisfaction, better
Better indoor air
quality, including
emissions of
volatile organic
com- pounds,
carbon dioxide
and carbon
Operation and
Lower energy
costs, reduced
longer building
and equipment
Improved occupant
satisfaction, health
and safety
Lower energy
reduced air
pollution and
other emissions
Table 5 Benefits of sustainable construction (Osec, 2010)
5. Sustainable construction- a focus on Nepalese context
5.1 Country Overview
Nepal is a landlocked country situated between India and China. It is a
mountainous country with 77% of its area lying in hilly and mountain region. It
occupies an area of 147,181 squares km. Nepal has a great altitude variations
ranging from 60 meters to 8848 meters. We can find great diversity in Nepal in
terms of climate, vegetation, culture and religion. Nepal has a population of 30
million with a population density of 189 inhabitants per About 17.3%
population is urban while rest is rural. Nepal has a literacy rate of 66% and
ranks 147 out of 187 countries based on HDI. The capital city Kathmandu is the
largest city of Nepal with maximum population and area of 899 sq.kms. Nepal's
GDP has increased by 3.6% (FY 2013) with per capita income of $750 ((Mulmi,
Table 6 Map of Nepal (UN-Habitat, 2010)
5.2 The Economy
Nepal is one the least developed country in the world. It ranks 147 out of 187
countries based on HDI. About 75% of its population depend on agriculture, but
sadly it contributes only 30% to the GDP (Wadhhwa, 2012). In case of food,
Nepal was always self-sufficient and also exported rice, wheat, grain and
sugarcane until 1980s. However, in recent time, it has become an importer of
food due to high demographic projection and low productivity. There are several
factors that contribute to Nepal's underdevelopment, some of which are its
landlocked geography, rugged terrain, poor infrastructure and lack of natural
resources. Today the economy of Nepal is characterized by narrow export
range like carpets, pashmina, garments and leather goods, which contribute
around only 12% to the GDP. The table here shows the annual GDP growth in
Table 7 GDP growth rate per year (Central bureau of statistics, Nepal, 2014)
Other major source of income of Nepal is Tourism. It is a leading industry acting
as a source of foreign exchange earning, Nepal is second richest in water
sources and acquires a massive potential of hydropower. But it taps only 1%
due to lack of capital financing. Another economic strength in which Nepal lives
by is remittance. The United states, European union, China Japan have been
actively supporting Nepal's economy by making large investments since 1952.
Today only the foreign aid accounts for half of the country's development
budget. According to World Bank article on Migration and Development Brief,
2013, the remittance adds to country's GDP by 25% and it is the highest among
South Asian countries. Despite of such huge economic inflow, only 2.9% is
being used for capital formation. Rest is being consumed daily, followed by
repayments of loans (Habitat, 2010)
Table 8 Remittance inflows (Asian Development Bank, 2009)
5.3 Urbanization and urban growth
Although Nepal is a large rural country with only 17% of urban population, it is
urbanizing rapidly with the rate of 4.9% (world urbanization prospects, 2011).
Table 9 Distribution of Urban and rural population (UN-Habitat, 2012)
The urban population contribute 65% of the total GDP. The capital city
Kathmandu is among the fastest growing metropolitan area of South Asia.
Kathmandu valley population is increasing at the rate of 4.76% per year (Bank,
2013). Also, the civil wars in rural parts of Nepal resulted population shift to the
capital in search of better life and opportunity. Although Nepal is the fastest
urbanizing country in South Asia, it is also the eighth least urbanized country in
the world . Kathmandu alone accounts for one third of Nepal's urban population
and acts as the urban hub, which can be made clear from the table below.
Table 10 Largest urban centers (census, 2011)
The major causes of urbanization are population growth, migration and security.
This unplanned urbanization taking place in Nepal has put tremendous pressure
on the limited resources. It also leads to inappropriate health and sanitation,
waste mismanagement, electricity shortage along with inadequate
infrastructures. According to the survey from National Living Standards, 2008-
09, 25.16% of Nepalese population live below poverty line. But above all is the
sky rocketing demand for housing (Sharma, 2014). Land prices have also risen
by 300% since 2003. Such high prices of land with increasing rents have made
housing unaffordable particularly for the poor. More than 75% of the urban
population of Nepal do not earn enough to afford 50sq.m house on the city
outskirts. These prohibitively high prices of urban houses have resulted in sun
standard housings. As per the study of poverty mapping exercise carried out in
2010, there were 12,000 squatters residing in Kathmandu valley alone. Also
additional 40% squatters were living illegally in public buildings, resulting a total
of approximately 20,000 squatter populations (Kurkarni, 2012).
Table 11 trend of urbanization in Nepal (CBS, 2011)
5.4 Housing scenario in Nepal
Housing basically refers to a dwelling. It is one of the key indicator of urban
growth as well as economy of that particular place. The housing condition of
Nepal is below standard; the urban area being better than rural. The
geographical variations and climatic conditions are identified as the major
culprits. The settlement pattern is generally linear, scattered or in small isolated
clusters. 23% of the urban population is poor and live in substandard houses.
Recently, housing has been realized as a national problem urging the nation to
find sustainable solutions. The housing trend in Nepal is something like:
Whereas in developed countries the trend is:
Table 12 Urbanization in Nepal (kathmandu post, 2014)
5.5 Housing stock
According to UNCHS, 1992, housing stock is understood as 'the quantity of
existing units in a house market that are regardless of conditions or compliance
with standards and regulations'. The national housing stock is categorized in
five types described in the table below (Habitat, 2010).
Stock by housing
National Urban Rural
Squatter 07.81% 09.09% 07.64%
Traditional (urban) 00.53% 04.28% 0%
42.18% 08.25% 46.94%
Semi-Pucca (semi
41.18% 37.09% 41.76%
8.30% 41.27% 3.67%
Table 13 stock by housing type (shelter and human settlement development,
The urban areas have more than three-fourth of semi-permanent and
permanent housing. In Nepal, owner built housing dominates the urban as well
as rural areas. The condition of houses are average or below in most of the
areas, although it has been improving over the years.
5.6 Demand and supply
Nepal is undergoing urban explosion rather than urban growth. The urban
population projection of Nepal in 2011 was 5.6 million while for the year 2021 is
9 million. This shows that in 2011 there was a rise of 1.1 million households in
urban centres and would reach to 1.8 million by 2021.
Table 14 Population projection in Nepal (CBS, 2003)
As per census, 2011, there are 5,427,302 numbers of households, which
consists of 5,423,297 individual households and 4,005 institutional households
(Nepal census, 2011). In such alarming condition it is obvious for the demand to
exceed the supply rate. One of the major constraints to supply of house is lack
of organized housing finance. The existing houses are in dilapidated state and
needs severe maintenance. In national scenario, 85.26% reside in their own
house and 12.81% in rented.
5.7 Efforts made
The table below gives a clear idea of major organization, which are actively
involved in housing and urban development in Nepal.
Central Government
National planning
commission (NPC)
National level policy
Ministry of local
Monitor the role of the
municipalities under the
Local Self Governance
Act 1999
Ministry of Physical
Planning and Works
Responsible for carrying
out 1996 housing policy
Set up of Urban
Development Committee
and Town Development
Responsible for
infrastructures including
urban infrastructures
Department of Urban
Development and
Building Construction
Supporting municipalities
in preparing periodic
plans and digital base
Janata Awas
Programme, 3,000 units
in 3 Terai districts (rural
housing for Terai
Preparing building code
and its regular updating
Partnering with NGOs in
addressing slum and
squatter issues
disadvantaged groups)
Town Development
Committees (TDC's)
Formulate and
implement the town
development plans
Implement land
development activities:
guided land
development, land
pooling and sites and
services programs
Enforce construction
rules and building codes
Estimated supply of
more than 11,000
serviced plots in urban
areas in last four
decades (in recent years
an increasing number
are joint projects of
TDCs and municipalities)
Nepal Housing
Development Finance
Company (NHDFC)
Provision of housing loan
facilities at reduced rates
Local Government
Municipalities Formulate and
implement the town
development plans
Implement land
development and
housing programs
Enforce construction
rules and building codes
since recent years
involved in provision of
serviced plots, no firm
estimation known
Lumanti Improve quality of life for
urban poor
Secure shelter for the
Solidarity for the poor
Squatter upgrading
Habitat for Humanity Assist other partners
(NGO's) to build
affordable housing using
local construction
Started 5,000 unit slum
upgrading project
primarily rural housing.
UN Agencies
UN-HABITAT/UNDP Facilitate the
government in urban
development issues
including housing
Support in housing
disaster affected
population in partnership
with local governments,
and NGOs
235 houses under
completion for Koshi
Flood disaster affected
landless people in
Sunsari District
Private Sector
Real Estate Developers Development of houses
and apartments
Estimated 750 houses
and 7,000 apartments
Land Brokers Provision of serviced
land for construction
Estimated supply of
50,000 serviced plots in
urban areas in last four
Table 15 key players in housing (UN-Habitat, 2010)
These problems and challenges of Nepal regarding housing is a complex
subject that needs to be addressed fast. The responsible authorities must
supply sufficient houses to its population, which means a rapid construction
process will take place soon. If this amount of heavy construction activity will
continue to use the same current technique then Nepal will suffer from
irreparable losses. As it is Nepal is already vulnerable to natural calamities like
floods, landslide, earthquakes, the chances will be more prominent. It will have
hard time finding solutions for prevailing issues like poverty, conflicts, social
disparity, water scarcity, and power cut offs. These matters can be solved
effectively by incorporating sustainable approach in construction. Sustainable
housing can be an effective solution as it is capable to deal with mentioned
5.8 Approach to sustainable housing
Sustainable housing has much to offer to the DC because of disproportionate
level of demands rising due to native weakness. Until today the CI of the DC
uses inappropriate method of construction that is not sustainable and will
continue to use until addressed. The severe shortage in housing has given rise
to substandard housing stock in many developing world, which is a result of
massive population growth in such countries. According to UNCHS, the DC
shows 95% of the world's total population increment, in last decade.
Studies show that within 2007-2025, the urban population increase per annum
in the DC is expected to be 53 million, whereas the developed countries will
have an increment of 3 million (Habitat, 2012)
This increase has already started showing its adverse effect in Nepal causing
scarcity in housing supply and giving birth to slums and squatters. Around 50%
of the total population of the DCs reside in such slums and squatters. Also the
natural disasters and conflict makes millions of people homeless affecting their
health, economy and social ties (Habitat, 2012). To overcome this shortage of
housing, all that requires are appropriate and affordable sustainable approach
(Habitat, 2012).
Sustainable housing is a practice of constructing houses by following processes
that are environment friendly, resource efficient and socially adoptable
throughout its life cycle. It all depends upon choices of materials and methods
of construction to reduce the risk of environmental imbalances. Sustainable
housing adds up to the economic development, enhancing quality of life, social
equality, while mitigating issues related to urbanization, poverty, climate
change, energy crises, economic uncertainty etc (Habitat, 2012). The table
below describes the characteristics and benefits of sustainable housing based
on TBL.

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