Effective leadership can be defined through 3 theories
1. Trait Theory
2. Style Theory
3. Contingency Theory
Trait theory consider leader having a set of qualities or traits or attributes which may not be possessed by others. These traits may include decision making skills, intelligence, confidence or any other skill that are essential for leadership. A leader may have been born or trained with all these traits or skills.
The common traits in a good leader can be categorized as
Good leaders have a vision for the future they know what step should the take in order to achieve the targets
Leaders should show signs of intelligence by tackling complex issues with relative ease.
Leaders should be able to take quick decisions and take calculated risks
Leaders should be confident and should know their strengths and weaknesses
Leaders should have the ability to supervise multiple individuals and teams effectively and efficiently.
Leaders should have their unique way of doing things and achieving targets. They should not follow the crowd.
Style theory considers the leadership style of a leader whether he/she focuses on task-oriented jobs or people-oriented jobs. Style theory deals with how a leader looks at the tasks or how does he prioritizes tasks. 
It is also known as behavior theory. Leader can use 2 different type of approaches.
Leaders emphasize on the tasks assigned to users or employees and the methods used to achieve the goals and complete the tasks assigned to those employees
Leaders emphasize on the development relationships between the management, leaders and employees. The roles and responsibilities and the delegation of authority is discussed and proper steps taken to ensure that the job is done 
Contingency theory looks at the factors which determine the suitable style of leadership. It also looks at the optimal way of leading the team to success. 
This theory looks at how leaders can increase the value of employees by assigning them tasks that employees may be find interesting and suitable
Leadership and management are 2 different entities but they are used interchangeably. Management deals with trivial and short terms problems and solutions that affect the inner working of the organization. Managers define and refine processes, establish goals, take care of team requirements and individual needs, meet deadlines, analyze current situation and take appropriate goals.
Leaders look at the boarder picture they make decisions that inspire individuals; they take risky decisions and control the environment and have the ability to make decisions that defines the behavior of an organization and the people working in it.
Leaders and managers require a different set of characteristics. Bennis (1989) have identified the characteristics as
The functions performed by management and leaders are also somewhat similar however both of them have their unique view of looking at different attributes. This can be depicted as
Management and leadership both are required for the proper working of any organization.
Managers are required to run and organization smoothly and efficiently while leader are required to come up with a vision for the organization.
, ,  Shamil Naoum (2001). People and Organizational management in construction. pp 196
 LI Kouqing (2009). Leadership: Theory and practice [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center website: http://www.afdc.org.cn/afdc/cn/UploadFile/2009111336327749.pdf
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