Malaria is a disease and deadly infection that is most common in hot and tropical areas of the world. It can also happen in temperate climates, specially in the stagnant water in the canals where the mosquitoes can stay. Malaria is an ancient organisms and has infected humans since the beginning of human race (Davis).
The term name 'mal aria' as in meaning 'bad air' in Italian and was first used in 1740 in English by Walpole (Davis). This was combined to 'malaria' in 1880 and the parasite was first identified in human blood (Davis).
In 1889, Rose discovered that mosquito was a transmitted disease (Davis). This is a fatal disease to most people live in malaria area. It is not just children, but also adults can get this illness. The mosquito carries malaria and not from bad air.
In 1970 the amount of malaria cases with U.S. military personnel, U.S. and foreign civilians had a total of 4,247 (Davis). Although, in 2011 had lesser incidents for about 1,925, according to Cullen's record. On his data, the U.S. infected with this malaria disease from higher and lower results started from year 2000 to 2010 and higher again in 2011.
The large numbers of malarial infections could be found in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America (Ayele). Most people tested in the U.S. about 1,500 people every year controlled from their infection outside the country while living or traveling thru an area where malaria is ongoing (Cullen).
It is bout 660,000 deaths every year worldwide due to malaria parasites (Davis). According to Dr. Davis, there are about 154 to 289 million new incidents every year worldwide are contaminated the malaria disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. This disease is uncommon in the U.S. It is even unheard from most foreigners or immigrants who come over the United States.
Infected Female Anopheles Mosquito
Malaria is causing death, a disease that is spread from a female Anopheles mosquito bite that infected with parasites that can infect human's red blood cells by drawing blood that contains a parasite from salivary gland of an infected mosquito with Plasmodium (Davis). The infected Anopheles mosquito is the only type of mosquito that can spread malaria (Davis). This is a dangerous bacteria or virus that people can get from a mosquito bites and a cycle problem illness from its one bite to another bites to people, unless it could killed from an environmental smoke-repellent.
During the mosquito bites, it injects the saliva to stop the blood from clotting and the infected saliva carries with malaria parasite rides the bloodstream like a road. It is seeking the target of the body's blood filter system which is the liver and get into liver tissue to infect the liver cells (Davis), and killing one and to another cells (Cullen). This single cell parasite infects the liver cells and makes its own DNA copies (Davis) and then infects the red blood cells, the human DNA. The parasite multiplies in the DNA host (Davis), it infects and destroys the red blood cells in the human body. According to Dr. Davis, there are five species of Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria and infect million of people worldwide, these are:
1. P. falciparum
2. P. vivax
3. P. ovale
4. P. malariae
5. P. knowlesi.
Dr. Davis writes that the first signs of malaria are cold and flu for a day, then it runs for four days to occur symptoms that can lead to lack of concentration and shortness of breath with normal flu, aches and pains. The symptoms characteristics of malaria include: flu like illness with fever, chills, muscle aches, and headache. Some patients may develop nausea vomiting, cough, diarrhea, and weight loss.
According to the editor on 'Onhealth' that the patients with malaria disease may develop typical symptoms, such as:
cycles of chills, fever, and repeatedly sweating every one, two, or three days are the most. These patients might have a cold stage over about six to nine hours by shivering and feeling cold and then followed by fever, headaches, vomiting, and sometimes seizures happen. Then sweating takes place without a fever, but the patient is so tired. Sometimes vomiting, diarrhea, coughing, yellowing of the skin, and occasionally a skin rash, and whites of the eyes due to destruction of red cells and liver cells. (Davis)
Certain types of malaria like P. vivax and P. ovale parasites can take much longer from eight to ten months to cause symptoms (Davis). So, these parasites remain inactive or hibernating in the liver cells during that time after a patient recovers from malaria. Unfortunately, the patient can get sick again.
'People with severe P. falciparum malaria can develop bleeding problems, shock, liver or kidney failure, central nervous system problems, coma, [brain damaged] and can die from the infection or its complications,' Dr. Davis says. Cerebral malaria that can cause coma or seizures can occur with P. falciparum infection (Davis). According to him that it is possible to be infected with more than one species of Plasmodium at the same time and some types of malaria may cause more serious problems, such as damage to the heart, lungs, kidneys, or brain.
A P. falciparum is found mostly in the tropics and subtropics that near in equator. P. vivax and P. malariae happen all over the tropical regions of the world (Packard). P. ovale is found in Western Africa, and P. knowlesi is found in Southeast Asia (Davis).
Immediate treatment for P. falciparum malaria is necessary, because it is lethal if not treated quickly that can cause of the number of deaths in humankind. It is about 15% to 20% die even with treatment (Davis). A P. falciparum is often resistant to a popular antimalarial medicine which is chloroquine and it needs treatment with other medicines (Davis).
The three common species of malaria, such as P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale, are generally less serious, and not life-threatening disease (Davis). These can be treated, and a person may recover in a month (Davis). This P. knowlesi is not as drug-resistant as P. falciparum. However, these P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi may stay in the liver (Davis), so it requires further treatment with medicine to prevent suffering from a disease.
Dr. Davis says that most patients recover with no problems unless infected with P. falciparum or P. knowlesi and treated immediately. It requires intravenous or IV drug treatment and fluid in the hospital if patients have a severe malaria that has mild malaria which can be treated with oral medication;
one or more symptoms of either impaired consciousness/coma, severe anemia, renal failure, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, spontaneous bleeding, acidosis, hemoglobinuria (hemoglobin in the urine), jaundice, repeated generalized convulsions, and/or parasitemia (parasites in the blood) of >5%. (Davis)
It may be able to prevent malaria by taking medicine before, during, and after travel to an area where malaria is present (Davis). The infants, children under age of five, and pregnant females are at higher risk for worse outcomes when infected with malaria parasites (Davis). Those with suppressed immune systems should be treated early in the infection (Davis). The transmission of parasites from mother to child during pregnancy or during labor could occur (Cullen). It would be successful if it is more lesser infected with malaria parasites and no more drug-resistant to malarial infections. The more lower statistic with this illness worldwide is more better for Americans' health.
The Centers for Disease Control recommendations for malaria prevention for individuals is to begin taking antimalarial drugs or tablets about one to two weeks before traveling to a malaria infested area (Cullen). Then, for four weeks after leaving the area and taking all the prescribe preventive medicine is a must, but avoiding travel to countries where malaria occurs is a wise idea (Cullen). It would be successful if it is more lesser infected with malaria parasites and no more drug-resistant to malarial infections. The more lower statistic with this illness worldwide is more better for Americans' health.
No one completely sure what the malaria cells do inside the malaria parasite cells that why the researchers cannot stop the spreading of parasites. However, there are other options that can help to prevent the mosquito bites, such as the basic routine in life by cleaning the stagnant waters in canals or containers and in front, backyard, and inside the house, mosquito bed net while sleeping, use repellents, and cover exposed skin if living in the tropical climate country in malaria area.
Health Care Profession and Issue
A Radiologic technologist (radiographer) who does an x-ray to the patient is one of the most important professions in a medical field in order to help diagnose the patient's medical condition, such as malaria.
However, the x-ray's radiation needs to focus an attention to this issue that can cause cancer and harmful to human later in life. A safety booth and anti-radiation vest are needed while taking the x-ray test for both patient and x-ray technician.
Ayele, D. G., Zewotir, T. T., & Mwambi, H. G. (2014). Semiparametric models for
malaria rapid diagnosis test result. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1-20. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-31
Cullen, K. A., & Arguin, P. M. (2013). Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2011. MMWR
Surveillance Summaries, 62(5), 1-18.
Davis, C. P. (2013, October 11). Malaria. Retrieved from
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