In this review we have used both hard copy (library based) access and Internet search facilities, to derive appropriate material. This was done at both the local University library and the local post-graduate medical centre library. Initial searches were made under the heading of Type II diabetes mellitus nutritional management.
Because it was important to provide a firm evidence base for the review, the searches were restricted solely to peer reviewed publications which, it was hoped, would make the selection process more efficient. (Berwick D 2005)
This highlighted more than enough good quality material for our initial examination of the literature.
As it transpired the four articles chosen were all from the BMJ. This is partially a coincidence, as over thirty different articles in twelve different publications were assessed in the preparation of this piece. The final decision that was made to include articles was based, not only on their relevance to the issue, but also on the fact that they were on aspects of diabetic nutritional management that was not more commonly covered in some of the more “routine” articles.
Many of the articles examined were discarded because they had obvious methodological flaws in their construction. (Mohammed, D 2003).
Many were effectively opinion pieces which had little in the way of cited references to validate their findings. Others were trials which may have had a number of potentially confounding sources of bias.
Berwick D 2005
Broadening the view of evidence-based medicine
Qual. Saf. Health Care, Oct 2005; 14: 315 - 316.
Bolton Smith C, Woodward M. 1999
Dietary composition and fat to sugar ratios in relation to obesity.
Int J Obes 1999;18: 820-8
Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the European Association for the study of diabetes.
Recommendations for the nutritional management of patients with diabetes mellitus.
Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54: 353-5.
Eysenbach G, John Powell, Marina Englesakis, Carlos Rizo, and Anita Stern 2004
Health related virtual communities and electronic support groups: systematic review of the effects of online peer to peer interactions
BMJ, May 2004; 328: 1166 ;
Gary TL, Genkinger JM, Guallar E, Peyrot M, Brancati FL. 2003
Meta-analysis of randomized educational and behavioral interventions in type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Educ. 2003;29: 488-501.
Hitchcock P, Pugh N & JA 2002
Management of overweight and obese adults
BMJ, Oct 2002; 325: 757 - 761 ;
Howe and Anderson 2003
Involving patients in medical education
BMJ, Aug 2003; 327: 326 - 328.
HSG (97)45: 1997
Key features of a good diabetes service
Department of Health document 01/10/1997
Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al.2002
Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.
N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 393-403
Lean MEJ and Hankey CR 2004
Aspartame and its effects on health
BMJ, Oct 2004; 329: 755 - 756 ;
Lean MEJ 2005
Prognosis in obesity: Author's reply
BMJ, Aug 2005; 331: 453 ;
Ludwig DS, Peterson, Gortmaker SL. 2001
Relation between consumption of sugar sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis.
Lancet 2001;357: 505-8
Mohammed, D Braunholtz, and T P Hofer 2003
The measurement of active errors: methodological issues
Qual. Saf. Health Care, Dec 2003; 12: 8 - 12.
Parker and Lawton 2003
Psychological contribution to the understanding of adverse events in health care
Qual. Saf. Health Care, Dec 2003; 12: 453 - 457.
Ralston JD, Debra Revere, Lynne S Robins, and Harold I Goldberg 2004
Patients' experience with a diabetes support programme based on an interactive electronic medical record: qualitative study
BMJ, May 2004; 328: 1159
Doing the Right Thing Right: Is Evidence-Based Medicine the Answer?
Ann Intern Med, Jul 1996; 127: 91 - 94.
Stratton I, Adler A, Neil A, Matthews D. (2000)
Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35); prospective observational study.
BMJ 2000; 321: 405-412.
Wing RR, Hill JO. 2001
Successful weight loss maintenance.
Annu Rev Nutr 2001; 21: 323-341
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